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Pelvic Pain General

Pain measurement in humans.
Ong KS, Seymour RA
Surgeon. 2004 Feb;2(1):15-27.

Sound measurement, an essential component of any scientific discipline, remains a particular problem in pain research. The measurement of pain intensity, for example, is a difficult and often a subjective undertaking. This is of little surprise to clinicians and researchers, because it is well recognised that pain intensity, like other sensations and perceptions, is a private experience that displays considerable variability both across patients and within a patient across time. Nonetheless, pain measurement and discerning factors that may affect its measurement are important for diagnosis and to determine the effectiveness of treatment interventions. This article reviews the basic concepts, roles, instruments used, and factors affecting pain measurement. A variety of the most commonly used pain measurement instruments are evaluated for their advantages and disadvantages. The article aims to assist clinicians and researchers to select the pain measurement instruments that best serve their purposes.

Psychosomatic pain: new insights and management strategies.
Rubin JJ
South Med J. 2005 Nov;98(11):1099-110; quiz 1111-2, 1138.

At least 40 to 60 percent of women and at least 20 percent of men with chronic pain disorders report a history of being abused during childhood and/or adulthood. This incidence of abuse is two to four times higher than in the general population. Patients with more severe or frequent abuse, usually during childhood and worse if sexual in nature. often develop specific syndromes or combinations of syndromes. These syndromes include posttraumatic stress disorder, fibromyalgia, and other conditions characterized by repression, somatization, and increased utilization of medical care. Psychosomatic symptoms and dysfunctional behaviors may emerge as these patients seek attention and validation of their suffering, while paradoxically repressing painful memories of trauma. Behavioral observations and key features of the physical examination may greatly help the clinician identify both the presence and severity of psychosomatic disease. In addition, it is very interesting that various studies document physiologic changes in the brains of patients with a history of abuse and in patients with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia. These studies suggest that abuse may physiologically and developmentally increase a person's susceptibility to pain and that some organic changes may be associated with psychogenic disease. Diagnosis and treatment of even the most challenging patients with chronic pain is much more effective if it includes (a) careful inquiry about any history of past or present abuse or other severe trauma, (b) empathy and constructive validation of disease and suffering, (c) recognition of dysfunctional pain behaviors and personality traits, (d) documentation of nonanatomic as well as anatomic features on examination, (e) multidisciplinary treatments including psychotherapy whenever indicated, and (f) noninvasive procedures and alternatives to potentially habit-forming medications whenever possible and appropriate. Furthermore, it has been shown that helping patients gain insight about the relationship between abuse and their current symptoms leads to decreased health care utilization. Practical guidelines are provided for identifying psychopathology, communicating effectively, and achieving better treatment outcomes for these unfortunate patients.

Psychosomatic reasons for chronic pains.
Ventegodt S, Merrick J
South Med J. 2005 Nov;98(11):1063.

Comparing yoga, exercise, and a self-care book for chronic low back pain: a randomized, controlled trial.
Sherman KJ, Cherkin DC, Erro J, Miglioretti DL, Deyo RA
Ann Intern Med. 2005 Dec 20;143(12):849-56.

BACKGROUND: Chronic low back pain is a common problem that has only modestly effective treatment options. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether yoga is more effective than conventional therapeutic exercise or a self-care book for patients with chronic low back pain. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: A nonprofit, integrated health care system. PATIENTS: 101 adults with chronic low back pain. INTERVENTION: 12-week sessions of yoga or conventional therapeutic exercise classes or a self-care book. MEASUREMENTS: Primary outcomes were back-related functional status (modified 24-point Roland Disability Scale) and "bothersomeness" of pain (11-point numerical scale). The primary time point was 12 weeks. Clinically significant change was considered to be 2.5 points on the functional status scale and 1.5 points on the bothersomeness scale. Secondary outcomes were days of restricted activity, general health status, and medication use. RESULTS: After adjustment for baseline values, back-related function in the yoga group was superior to the book and exercise groups at 12 weeks (yoga vs. book: mean difference, -3.4 [95% CI, -5.1 to - 1.6] [P < 0.001]; yoga vs. exercise: mean difference, -1.8 [CI, -3.5 to - 0.1] [P = 0.034]). No significant differences in symptom bothersomeness were found between any 2 groups at 12 weeks; at 26 weeks, the yoga group was superior to the book group with respect to this measure (mean difference, -2.2 [CI, -3.2 to - 1.2]; P < 0.001). At 26 weeks, back-related function in the yoga group was superior to the book group (mean difference, -3.6 [CI, -5.4 to - 1.8]; P < 0.001). LIMITATIONS: Participants in this study were followed for only 26 weeks after randomization. Only 1 instructor delivered each intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Yoga was more effective than a self-care book for improving function and reducing chronic low back pain, and the benefits persisted for at least several months.

Mechanisms of placebo analgesia: rACC recruitment of a subcortical antinociceptive network.
Bingel U, Lorenz J, Schoell E, Weiller C, Buchel C
Pain. 2005 Dec 15;.

Placebo analgesia is one of the most striking examples of the cognitive modulation of pain perception and the underlying mechanisms are finally beginning to be understood. According to pharmacological studies, the endogenous opioid system is essential for placebo analgesia. Recent functional imaging data provides evidence that the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) represents a crucial cortical area for this type of endogenous pain control. We therefore hypothesized that placebo analgesia recruits other brain areas outside the rACC and that interactions of the rACC with these brain areas mediate opioid-dependent endogenous antinociception as part of a top-down mechanism. Nineteen healthy subjects received and rated painful laser stimuli to the dorsum of both hands, one of them treated with a fake analgesic cream (placebo). Painful stimulation was preceded by an auditory cue, indicating the side of the next laser stimulation. BOLD-responses to the painful laser-stimulation during the placebo and no-placebo condition were assessed using event-related fMRI. After having confirmed placebo related activity in the rACC, a connectivity analysis identified placebo dependent contributions of rACC activity with bilateral amygdalae and the periaqueductal gray (PAG). This finding supports the view that placebo analgesia depends on the enhanced functional connectivity of the rACC with subcortical brain structures that are crucial for conditioned learning and descending inhibition of nociception.

Laparoscopic Management of Rectal Endometriosis.
Jatan AK, Solomon MJ, Young J, Cooper M, Pathma-Nathan N
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Dec 8;.

PURPOSE: Surgical treatment of females with rectal endometriosis is challenging. The aim of this study was to review the results of laparoscopic intervention in the management of females with this complex disorder. METHOD: All cases of complex tertiary referral pelvic endometriosis requiring laparoscopic surgical intervention of the rectum were identified and reviewed from a prospective database. RESULTS: Between April 1996 and August 2004, 95 patients with pelvic endometriosis involving the rectum had laparoscopic surgical procedures performed by one gynecologist and one colorectal surgeon. Eighty percent of rectal procedures were completed laparoscopically. Forty-three (45 percent) were treated with diathermy excision, 18 (19 percent) had shave partial-thickness disc excision, 20 (21 percent) had full-thickness disc excision (including 14 endoanally using a circular stapler), while 14 (15 percent) were managed with laparoscopic-assisted segmental low anterior resection. A history of rectal pain during defecation present only during menstruation (adjusted odds ratio = 8.6, 95 percent confidence interval (CI) = 1.8-41.2) and previous laparoscopy (adjusted odds ratio = 3.2, 95 percent CI = 1.2-8.3) independently predicted a need for more extensive surgery than diathermy excision. There were no rectal anastomotic leaks, with 8 percent overall morbidity. The only significant predictor of ongoing postoperative symptoms was a history of dyspareunia (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with complex endometriosis of the rectum can be safely managed laparoscopically using a multidisciplinary approach. This case series suggests that a history of rectal pain during defecation that occurs only during menstruation is predictive of females with more extensive rectal disease.

A comment on the history of the pulsed radiofrequency technique for pain therapy.
Cosman ER
Anesthesiology 2005 Dec;103(6):1312.

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of duloxetine in the treatment of women with fibromyalgia with or without major depressive disorder.
Arnold LM, Rosen A, Pritchett YL, D'Souza DN, Goldstein DJ, Iyengar S, Wernicke JF
Pain 2005 Nov 16;.

This was a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the efficacy and safety of duloxetine, a selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, in 354 female patients with primary fibromyalgia, with or without current major depressive disorder. Patients (90% Caucasian; mean age, 49.6 years; 26% with current major depressive disorder) received duloxetine 60mg once daily (QD) (N=118), duloxetine 60mg twice daily (BID) (N=116), or placebo (N=120). The primary outcome was the Brief Pain Inventory average pain severity score. Response to treatment was defined as >/=30% reduction in this score. Compared with placebo, both duloxetine-treated groups improved significantly more (P<0.001) on the Brief Pain Inventory average pain severity score. A significantly higher percentage of duloxetine-treated patients had a decrease of >/=30% in this score (duloxetine 60mg QD (55%; P<0.001); duloxetine 60mg BID (54%; P=0.002); placebo (33%)). The treatment effect of duloxetine on pain reduction was independent of the effect on mood and the presence of major depressive disorder. Compared with patients on placebo, patients treated with duloxetine 60mg QD or duloxetine 60mg BID had significantly greater improvement in remaining Brief Pain Inventory pain severity and interference scores, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Clinical Global Impression of Severity, Patient Global Impression of Improvement, and several quality-of-life measures. Both doses of duloxetine were safely administered and well tolerated. In conclusion, both duloxetine 60mg QD and duloxetine 60mg BID were effective and safe in the treatment of fibromyalgia in female patients with or without major depressive disorder.

Cortical representation of experimental tooth pain in humans.
Jantsch HH, Kemppainen P, Ringler R, Handwerker HO, Forster C
Pain 2005 Nov 12;.

Cortical processing of electrically induced pain from the tooth pulp was studied in healthy volunteers with fMRI. In a first experiment, cortical representation of tooth pain was compared with that of painful mechanical stimulation to the hand. The contralateral S1 cortex was activated during painful mechanical stimulation of the hand, whereas tooth pain lead to bilateral activation of S1. The S2 and insular region were bilaterally activated by both stimuli. In S2, the center of gravity of the activation during painful mechanical stimulation was more medial/posterior compared to tooth pain. In the insular region, tooth pain induced a stronger activation of the anterior and medial parts. The posterior part of the anterior cingulate gyrus was more strongly activated by painful stimulation of the hand. Differential activations were also found in motor and frontal areas including the orbital frontal cortex where tooth pain lead to greater activations. In a second experiment, we compared the effect of weak with strong tooth pain. A significantly greater activation by more painful tooth stimuli was found in most of those areas in which tooth pain had induced more activation than hand pain. In the medial frontal and right superior frontal gyri, we found an inverse relationship between pain intensity and BOLD contrast. We concluded that tooth pain activates a cortical network which is in several respects different from that activated by painful mechanical stimulation of the hand, not only in the somatotopically organized somatosensory areas but also in parts of the 'medial' pain projection system.

Chronic pelvic pain associated with autoimmunity and systemic and peritoneal inflammation and treatment with immune modification.
Thomson JC, Redwine DB
J Reprod Med 2005 Oct;50(10):745-58.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of chronic inflammation of the pelvic peritoneum, systemic inflammation and autoimmunity in chronic pelvic pain and to explore the significance of these findings and assess the response to treatment with immune modification. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, observational clinical studies from 2 centers were performed on 3,238 women presenting with pelvic pain to determine the prevalence of chronic inflammation by biopsy when endometriosis was absent. A second study included 40 women with chronic pelvic pain not resulting from endometriosis; immunologic investigations were carried out and therapy instituted. RESULTS: Chronic inflammation of the peritoneum, while not evident in the absence of pelvic pain, was present in 15.7% of women with chronic pelvic pain. In the second group, 10% had histologic evidence of chronic inflammation, 55% demonstrated evidence of systemic inflammation, and 37.5% were found to have autoimmune disorders. Chronic inflammation of the vagina was found in 42.5% and polycystic ovary syndrome in 22% of those with systemic inflammation. Twelve of the 40 were subsequently treated, with considerable success, with immune-modifying drugs, hydroxychloroquine and methotrexate. CONCLUSION: Chronic pelvic pain is frequently associated with systemic inflammation, including autoimmune diseases. Peritoneal chronic inflammation is sometimes also associated. It is often successfully treated with immune-modifying drugs.

Rectal endometriosis.
Averbach M, Abrao M, Podgaec S, Correa P
Gastrointest Endosc 2005 Dec;62(6):978-9.

For fibromyalgia, which treatments are the most effective?
Yousefi P, Coffey J
J Fam Pract 2005 Dec;54(12):1094-5.

There is no single most effective modality for the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome, and no objective comparison of the results from the different studies is available. Low-dose tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) improve sleep quality and global well-being and have a moderate beneficial effect on tenderness and stiffness (strength of recommendation [SOR]: A, based on a systematic review of randomized controlled trials [RCTs]). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may moderately improve fibromyalgia-related symptoms (SOR: B, based on a few RCTs). The serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) duloxetine (Cymbalta) and milnacipran (Ixel, not currently available in the US) improve pain and other symptoms (SOR: B, based on single RCTs). Tramadol (Ultram) improves pain and other outcomes (SOR: A, based on a few RCTs). Cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril) improves both pain and sleep quality (SOR: A, based on a systematic review of RCTs). Aerobic exercise improves overall functional capacity and sense of well-being for patients with fibromyalgia (SOR: A, based on a systematic review of RCT). Cognitive behavioral therapy improves patients' self-reported symptoms (SOR: A, based on RCTs).

Perineal endometriosis in episiotomy scar with anal sphincter involvement report of two cases and review of the literature.
Barisic GI, Krivokapic ZV, Jovanovic DR
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2005 Oct 18;:1-4.

Perineal endometriosis with anal sphincter involvement is a rare occurrence with only nine cases reported so far. Two such cases are presented, and the literature is reviewed. In presented cases, diagnosis was suspected at clinical exam. Anal manometry was performed in both cases and endoanal ultrasound in one case. Wide surgical excision of endometriotic mass together with part of external anal sphincter was carried out in both cases. The procedure was followed by anal sphincter reconstruction in an "overlapping" fashion in the first and "apposition" technique in the second case. Histopathologic tests confirmed endometriosis. The recovery was uneventful in both cases with excellent functional results. Two years after the operation, patients are asymptomatic and fully continent. According to the literature and our own experience, wide excision of endometrioma with primary sphincteroplasty seems to be the best chance of cure with satisfactory functional results and should be recommended.

Multidetector CT of the Female Pelvis.
Siddall KA, Rubens DJ
Radiol Clin North Am 2005 Nov;43(6):1097-118.

In the emergency room setting, multidetector detector CT (MDCT) offers rapid, noninvasive, multiplanar evaluation of female patients who have acute pelvic pain. MDCT has been integrated into several of the major trauma centers, and its use may surpass the use of ultrasound in the trauma evaluation of the pregnant patient. In the nonemergent setting, MDCT can be used to stage gynecologic malignancy and to evaluate tumor recurrence. Multiplanar MDCT has received some acceptance for evaluation of small primary tumor volume and small metastatic implants. MDCT also has a role in the evaluation of pelvic varices and suspected pelvic congestion syndrome.

Computed tomography-guided anterior approach to the superior hypogastric plexus for noncancer pelvic pain: a report of two cases.
Michalek P, Dutka J
Clin J Pain 2005 Nov-Dec;21(6):553-6.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility and describe the methodology of a computed tomography-guided anterior approach to superior hypogastric plexus block for noncancer pain. A computed tomography-guided anterior approach to the superior hypogastric plexus was used in 2 patients with pelvic pain and anatomic disturbance of the lumbar spine, which was a contraindication to the conventional dorsal approach. The first case was a 43-year-old patient suffering from burning pain of the urethra. Pain relief using analgesics and antidepressants was insufficient. The posterior approach was excluded due to coexisting irritation of the L5 nerve root. The second case was a 68-year-old man suffering from chronic burning and itching pain of the urethra and glans penis. Conservative therapy (anti-inflammatory drugs, tramadol, spasmolytics) failed to provide satisfactory pain relief. The posterior approach was contraindicated because of laterally prominent L5 vertebral body osteophytes. Both patients received a prognostic block to the superior hypogastric plexus via the anterior approach guided by computed tomography. Visual analog scale scores prior to the block were 6 to 7 and 5 to 6, respectively. The visual analog scale scores 24 hours after the block were 1 and 0, respectively. The second patient received a permanent neurolytic block via the anterior approach to provide long-term pain relief. In conclusion, the authors describe the computed tomography-guided anterior approach to the superior hypogastric plexus for chronic pelvic pain. The technique is simple to perform, and the analgesic effect is satisfactory. More extensive studies are necessary to evaluate the safety of this approach.

Diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities of ultrasound in the management of pelvic pain.
Okaro E, Condous G
Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2005 Dec;17(6):611-617.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the current diagnostic and therapeutic role of ultrasound in the management of pelvic pain. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent advances in ultrasound technology and expertise have facilitated the accurate diagnosis of common gynaecological and nongynaecological pathologies. Peritoneal and deep infiltrating endometriosis can now be diagnosed using hard and soft ultrasound-based markers. The combination of ultrasound-guided aspiration and instillation of a sclerosant is an alternative to surgery in the management of adnexal masses. SUMMARY: Experience is a key factor in the ability of transvaginal ultrasound to characterize common gynaecological disorders with accuracy. Therapeutic ultrasound provides an alternative to surgery.

Botulinum toxin A versus bupivacaine trigger point injections for the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome: A randomised double blind crossover study.
Graboski CL, Shaun Gray D, Burnham RS
Pain 2005 Sep 30;.

The treatment of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is diverse and includes trigger point injections of various substances including local anesthetics, steroids and Botulinum toxin A (BTX A). The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of trigger point injections using BTX A versus bupivacaine, both in combination with a home-based rehabilitation program. To be enrolled, subjects first had to demonstrate responsiveness to bupivacaine trigger point injection. In this single center, double blind, randomized, cross-over trial, 18 patients with MPS received trigger point injections of either 25 units Botulinum toxin A or 0.5ml of 0.5% bupivacaine per trigger point. A maximum of eight trigger points were injected per subject. Subjects were followed until their pain returned to 75% or more of their pre-injection pain for two consecutive weeks, after which there was a 2 week wash-out period. The subjects then crossed over and had the same trigger points injected with the other agent. All subjects participated in a home exercise program involving static stretches of the affected muscles. Both treatments were effective in reducing pain when compared to baseline (P=0.0067). There was, however, no significant difference between the BTX A and 0.5% bupivacaine groups in duration or magnitude of pain relief, function, satisfaction or cost of care (cost of injectate excluded). Considering the high cost of BTX A, bupivacaine is deemed a more cost-effective injectate for MPS.

Acupuncture in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomised trial.

Witt C, Brinkhaus B, Jena S, Linde K, Streng A, Wagenpfeil S, Hummelsberger J, Walther HU, Melchart D, Willich SN
Lancet 2005 Jul 12;366(9480):136-43.

BACKGROUND: Acupuncture is widely used by patients with chronic pain although there is little evidence of its effectiveness. We investigated the efficacy of acupuncture compared with minimal acupuncture and with no acupuncture in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. METHODS: Patients with chronic osteoarthritis of the knee (Kellgren grade < or =2) were randomly assigned to acupuncture (n=150), minimal acupuncture (superficial needling at non-acupuncture points; n=76), or a waiting list control (n=74). Specialised physicians, in 28 outpatient centres, administered acupuncture and minimal acupuncture in 12 sessions over 8 weeks. Patients completed standard questionnaires at baseline and after 8 weeks, 26 weeks, and 52 weeks. The primary outcome was the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) index at the end of week 8 (adjusted for baseline score). All main analyses were by intention to treat. RESULTS: 294 patients were enrolled from March 6, 2002, to January 17, 2003; eight patients were lost to follow-up after randomisation, but were included in the final analysis. The mean baseline-adjusted WOMAC index at week 8 was 26.9 (SE 1.4) in the acupuncture group, 35.8 (1.9) in the minimal acupuncture group, and 49.6 (2.0) in the waiting list group (treatment difference acupuncture vs minimal acupuncture -8.8, [95% CI -13.5 to -4.2], p=0.0002; acupuncture vs waiting list -22.7 [-27.5 to -17.9], p<0.0001). After 52 weeks the difference between the acupuncture and minimal acupuncture groups was no longer significant (p=0.08). INTERPRETATION: After 8 weeks of treatment, pain and joint function are improved more with acupuncture than with minimal acupuncture or no acupuncture in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. However, this benefit decreases over time.

Sexual dysfunction in female subjects with fibromyalgia.
Tikiz C, Muezzinoglu T, Pirildar T, Taskn EO, Frat A, Tuzun C
J Urol 2005 Aug;174(2):620-3.

PURPOSE: We investigated sexual function in females with fibromyalgia (FM) and evaluate whether coexistent major depression (MD) has an additional negative effect on sexual function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 100 female subjects were enrolled in the study, including 40 with FM only, 27 with FM plus MD and 33 healthy volunteers as a control group. The diagnosis of MD was made according to Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV interview and the Hamilton Depression Rate Scale was used to grade depression. Widespread pain and quality of life were assessed with the Lattinen Pain Scale and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, respectively. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was used to assess sexual dysfunction. RESULTS: All subjects were comparable in age, occupation and education. Mean FSFI total score +/- SD was significantly decreased in the FM and FM plus MD groups compared with that in healthy controls (21.83 +/- 5.84 and 22.43 +/- 7.0 vs 28.10 +/- 6.52, respectively, p = 0.001). However, the FSFI score was not significantly different between patients with FM only and FM plus MD (p >0.05). Correlation analysis revealed a negative moderate correlation between total Lattinen pain score and FSFI score in the FM only and FM plus MD groups (r = -0.366, p = 0.047 and r = -0.403, p = 0.018, respectively). FSFI score did not correlate with FIQ and HDRS scores (p >0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that female patients with FM have distinct sexual dysfunction compared with healthy controls and coexistent MD has no additional negative effect on sexual function. Thus, female subjects with FM should be evaluated in terms of sexual function to provide better quality of life.

Peripheral nerve blocks and peri-operative pain relief.
Davies JA
Anaesthesia 2005 Jul;60(7):735.

Chronic pain in persons with neuromuscular disease.
Jensen MP, Abresch RT, Carter GT, McDonald CM
Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005 Jun;86(6):1155-63.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the nature and scope of pain in persons with neuromuscular disorder (NMD). DESIGN: Survey study. SETTING: University-based rehabilitation research programs. PARTICIPANTS: Adults with NMD (N=193). INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pain presence or absence, pain severity, pain quality (Neuropathic Pain Scale), pain interference (Brief Pain Inventory), pain site, quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey [SF-36]), and pain treatment. RESULTS: Seventy-three percent of the sample reported pain, with 27% of these reporting that this pain was severe (> or =7 on a 0-10 scale), on average. "Deep," "tiring," "sharp," and "dull" were the words used most frequently to describe NMD pain. Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and myotonic muscular dystrophies reported the greatest pain interference, and patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth the least, among all NMD diagnoses. The most frequent pain site, overall, was back (49%), followed by leg (47%), shoulder (43%), neck (40%), buttock and hip(s) (37%), feet (36%), arm(s) (36%), and hand(s) (35%). The study participants reported significantly greater dysfunction than subjects in the SF-36 normative sample (persons without health problems) on a number of the SF-36 scales. However, we found no significant differences between the study participants and the US norms on the SF-36 role-emotional or mental health scales. A number of pain treatments were used by the study sample, but no treatment appeared to be effective for all participants, and some of the treatments reported as most effective (eg, chiropractic care) were used by very few participants. CONCLUSIONS: Pain is a common problem among patients with NMDs. There are many similarities, but also some important differences, between NMD diagnostic groups on the nature and scope of pain and its impact. More research is needed to identify and test effective treatments for NMD-related pain.

Cognitive complaints are associated with depression, fatigue, female sex, and pain catastrophizing in patients with chronic pain.
Roth RS, Geisser ME, Theisen-Goodvich M, Dixon PJ
Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005 Jun;86(6):1147-54.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between demographic, pain-related, psychosocial, affective, and treatment factors and complaints of cognitive dysfunction among patients with chronic pain. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: A university hospital outpatient multidisciplinary chronic pain program. PARTICIPANTS: Chronic pain patients (N=222; 135 women, 87 men) completed a battery of psychometric questionnaires as part of an initial evaluation on referral to the program. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cognitive impairment was assessed with items from the Brief Symptom Inventory; measures of depressive symptoms, pain intensity, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and pain catastrophizing were obtained from the Beck Depression Inventory (negative affect, negative self, somatic/physical function), McGill Pain Questionnaire, Modified Posttraumatic Chronic Pain Test, and Coping Strategies Questionnaire, respectively; and measures of subjective sleep disturbance, fatigue, opiate use, compensation/litigation status, pain location, and relevant demographic data were obtained from an open-ended questionnaire. RESULTS: Correlational analysis indicated that female sex, pain intensity, PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, catastrophizing, pain location (neck), and fatigue were all positively related to cognitive complaints. Simultaneous regression analysis showed that all factors combined accounted for 52% of the variance in self-report of cognitive difficulties and that 6 variables had a significant unique contribution to the report of cognitive complaints in the following order of importance: depression-negative affect (beta=.28, P <.05), fatigue (beta=.17, P <.05), depression-somatic/physical function (beta=.16, P <.05), depression-negative self (beta=.14, P =.05), pain catastrophizing (beta=.12, P =.08), and female sex (beta=.12, P <.05). CONCLUSIONS: Complaints of cognitive impairment among chronic pain patients appear to be associated with multiple factors, with particular attention to depressive symptoms, fatigue, and catastrophizing. Our results also suggest that women with chronic pain are particularly vulnerable to cognitive dysfunction.

A randomized clinical trial of acupuncture compared with sham acupuncture in fibromyalgia.
Assefi NP, Sherman KJ, Jacobsen C, Goldberg J, Smith WR, Buchwald D
Ann Intern Med 2005 Jul 5;143(1):10-9.

BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a common chronic pain condition for which patients frequently use acupuncture. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether acupuncture relieves pain in fibromyalgia. DESIGN: Randomized, sham-controlled trial in which participants, data collection staff, and data analysts were blinded to treatment group. SETTING: Private acupuncture offices in the greater Seattle, Washington, metropolitan area. PATIENTS: 100 adults with fibromyalgia. INTERVENTION: Twice-weekly treatment for 12 weeks with an acupuncture program that was specifically designed to treat fibromyalgia, or 1 of 3 sham acupuncture treatments: acupuncture for an unrelated condition, needle insertion at nonacupoint locations, or noninsertive simulated acupuncture. MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome was subjective pain as measured by a 10-cm visual analogue scale ranging from 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain ever). Measurements were obtained at baseline; 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment; and 3 and 6 months after completion of treatment. Participant blinding and adverse effects were ascertained by self-report. The primary outcomes were evaluated by pooling the 3 sham-control groups and comparing them with the group that received acupuncture to treat fibromyalgia. RESULTS: The mean subjective pain rating among patients who received acupuncture for fibromyalgia did not differ from that in the pooled sham acupuncture group (mean between-group difference, 0.5 cm [95% CI, -0.3 cm to 1.2 cm]). Participant blinding was adequate throughout the trial, and no serious adverse effects were noted. LIMITATIONS: A prescription of acupuncture at fixed points may differ from acupuncture administered in clinical settings, in which therapy is individualized and often combined with herbal supplementation and other adjunctive measures. A usual-care comparison group was not studied. CONCLUSION: Acupuncture was no better than sham acupuncture at relieving pain in fibromyalgia.

Musculoskeletal Causes of Chronic Pelvic Pain: A Systematic Review of Existing Therapies: Part II.
Tu FF, As-Sanie S, Steege JF
Obstet Gynecol Surv 2005 Jul;60(7):474-483.

Chronic pelvic pain is a common clinical problem with many causes. In addition to gynecologic causes, it is important to evaluate other potential etiologies, including the pelvic musculoskeletal system. There have been few published studies on musculoskeletal causes of pelvic pain and its treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate treatment of pelvic musculoskeletal pain among women with chronic pelvic pain. We used a set of key words pertaining to pain and the pelvic musculoskeletal structures to initially review the PUBMED database. Additional articles were sought by discussion with a clinician specializing in this field and review of relevant textbook bibliographies. Study inclusion was restricted to English-language publications that reported a patient-related chronic pelvic pain outcome measure. Each report must have described at least four patients. For each selected article, two investigators separately summarized pertinent data on study characteristics, patient profiles, intervention characteristics, and treatment outcomes. Discrepancies were resolved by discussion. Twenty-nine treatment studies met entry criteria. The existing literature largely consists of retrospective, uncontrolled observational studies. The two studies that feature control groups lack sufficient size and scope to allow generalizability. Properly designed and executed randomized, controlled trials are urgently needed to determine the true effectiveness of treatments for pelvic musculoskeletal pain. TARGET AUDIENCE: Obstetricians & Gynecologists, Family Physicians LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After completion of this article, the reader should be able to summarize the current data on musculoskeletal causes of chronic pelvic pain, to outline the various techniques used to treat musculoskeletal causes of chronic pelvic pain, and to recall the lack of evidence based data on the subject and need for randomized controlled trials.

Sex Differences in musculoskeletal pain in older adults.
Leveille SG, Zhang Y, McMullen W, Kelly-Hayes M, Felson DT
Pain 2005 Jun 24;.

Little is known about sex differences in musculoskeletal pain in older persons. There were 682 women and 380 men aged 72 years and older who participated in the 22nd biennial exam of the Framingham Study (1992-1993). Participants were asked to identify pain locations on a homunculus showing all regions of the body. Pain was categorized according to number of regions, with the most disseminated pain classified as widespread pain (back pain and upper and lower extremity pain with bilaterality). Among the women, 63% reported pain in one or more regions, compared to 52% of men. Widespread pain was more prevalent among women than men (15 versus 5%, respectively). In both men and women, pain was associated with fair or poor self-rated health, history of back pain before age 65, and disability. Factors associated with pain only in women included body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and depressive symptoms. In men but not women, pain was associated with polyarticular radiographic osteoarthritis. In conclusion, musculoskeletal pain was more prevalent and more widespread in older women than older men. Men and women differ in the factors associated with musculoskeletal pain in older ages. Further research is needed to understand sex differences in musculoskeletal pain the older population.

Functional abdominal pain.
Matthews PJ, Aziz Q
Postgrad Med J 2005 Jul;81(957):448-55.

Functional abdominal pain or functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is an uncommon functional gut disorder characterised by chronic or recurrent abdominal pain attributed to the gut but poorly related to gut function. It is associated with abnormal illness behaviour and patients show psychological morbidity that is often minimised or denied in an attempt to discover an organic cause for symptoms. Thus the conventional biomedical approach to the management of such patients is unhelpful and a person's symptom experience is more usefully investigated using a biopsychosocial evaluation, which necessarily entails a multidisciplinary system of healthcare provision. Currently the pathophysiology of the disorder is poorly understood but is most likely to involve a dysfunction of central pain mechanisms either in terms of attentional bias, for example, hypervigilance or a failure of central pain modulation/inhibition. Although modern neurophysiological investigation of patients is promising and may provide important insights into the pathophysiology of FAPS, current clinical management relies on an effective physician-patient relationship in which limits on clinical investigation are set and achievable treatment goals tailored to the patient's needs are pursued.

Recognition and Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Among Women With Chronic Pelvic Pain.
Williams RE, Hartmann KE, Sandler RS, Miller WC, Savitz LA, Steege JF
Obstet Gynecol Surv 2005 Jul;60(7):439-440.

This paper presents a series of 970 women who reported to the Chronic Pelvic Pain Clinic at the University of North Carolina between July 1993 and December 2000 with pelvic pain of at least 6 months duration. The authors investigated the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in these patients and what, if any, treatment they had received.Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the McGill Questionnaire for measuring pain level, and a general health questionnaire. Symptoms reported in the general health form were used to determine a diagnosis of IBS according to the Rome I criteria. These include abdominal pain that is relieved by defecation or that is associated with a change in frequency or consistency of stool, and 2 or more of the following symptoms experienced at least one fourth of the time: a change in stool frequency, stool form, or stool passage; passage of mucus; and bloating or feeling of abdominal extension. Treatments included lower gastrointestinal drugs and/or referral to a gastroenterologist.Most of the women were under 40 years of age, and 68% had at least mild depression. In the total group of 970 women, 336 (35%) were diagnosed with IBS. Among these patients, 136 (40%) had not been diagnosed with IBS before and two thirds (67%) had not received either lower gastrointestinal drugs or referral to a gastroenterologist.Compared with women without IBS, women with IBS were more likely to be receiving antidepressants (51% vs. 40%), lower gastrointestinal (28% vs. 11%) or upper gastrointestinal medications (16.0 vs. 6.8%), hormone replacement (19.4% vs. 13.6%), and anticonvulsant, sedative-hypnotic, or anxiolytic drugs (17.3% vs. 11%). Oral contraceptives were more common among women without IBS (22.1%) compared with those with IBS (15.8%). There were no significant differences between women with and without IBS in numbers or kinds of previous surgeries. Only 6.5% of patients with IBS had been referred to a gastroenterologist.Women with IBS who scored in the lower 3 quartiles on the McGill Pain questionnaire were more likely to be receiving IBS treatment than women in the highest quartile.

Chronic intermittent abdominal pain.
Ockenga J, Lochs H.
Gut 2005 Jul;54(7):1002.

Pudendal neuralgia, a severe pain syndrome.
Benson JT, Griffis K.
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005 May;192(5):1663-8.

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and electrodiagnostic findings, therapies, and outcomes of patients with pudendal neuralgia. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective, descriptive study of 64 patients from March 19 to December 22, 2003. RESULTS: Clinical findings
included pain along nerve distribution (64, 100%), pain aggravated by sitting (62, 97%), pain relieved by standing or lying (57, 89%), and misdiagnosis (53, 83%). Neurophysiologic findings were normal (23, 35%), demyelination (17, 26%), axonal loss (5, 7.5%), and demyelination with axonal loss (21, 32%). Therapies were conservative (64, 100%), nerve injection (38, 59%), neuromodulation (2, 3%), and decompression surgery (10, 15%). Slight or moderate pain improvement with therapies included conservative (64, 100%), nerve injection (12, 31%), neuromodulation (2, 100%), and decompression (6, 60%). CONCLUSION: Pudendal neuralgia is poorly recognized and poorly treated. Improvement is gained with conservative therapy. Injections and decompression benefit one half and one third of patients, respectively. Neuromodulation needs further evaluation.

A model of neural cross-talk and irritation in the pelvis: implications for the overlap of chronic pelvic pain disorders.
Pezzone MA, Liang R, Fraser MO.
Gastroenterology 2005 Jun;128(7):1953-64.

Irritable bowel syndrome, interstitial cystitis, and other chronic pelvic pain (CPP) disorders often occur concomitantly. Neural cross-talk may play a role in the overlap of CPP disorders via the convergence of pelvic afferents. We investigated the hypothesis that afferent irritation of one pelvic organ may adversely influence and sensitize another via neural interactions. Methods: We measured pelvic organ smooth muscle and striated muscle reflexes during micturition and colorectal distention (CRD) in urethane-anesthetized rats. The effects of acute cystitis on distal colonic sensory thresholds to CRD and the effects of acute colonic irritation on micturition parameters were assessed. Results: External urethral sphincter (EUS) electromyography (EMG) was typical for the rat, with phasic firing during micturition. External anal sphincter EMG also showed phasic firing during micturition in synchrony with EUS activity but, in addition, showed both tonic bursts and phasic firing independent of EUS activity. Before bladder irritation, graded CRDs to 40 cm H 2 O produced no notable changes in abdominal wall EMG activity. Following acute bladder irritation, dramatic increases in abdominal wall EMG activity in response to CRD were observed at much lower distention pressures, indicating colonic afferent sensitization. Analogously, following acute colonic irritation, bladder contraction frequency increased 66%, suggesting sensitization of lower urinary tract afferents. Conclusions: We report compelling evidence of bidirectional cross-sensitization of the colon and lower urinary tract in a novel experimental model. This cross-sensitization may account for the substantial overlap of CPP disorders; however, further studies are needed to fully characterize these pathways.

[The treatment of bladder endometriosis. Spanish literature review].
Sanchez Merino JM, Guillan Maquieira C, Garcia Alonso J.
Arch Esp Urol 2005 Apr;58(3):189-94.

OBJECTIVES: To perform a comprehensive, up-to-date review of the treatment of all cases of bladder endometriosis published in Spanish language journals in our country, including those published in non-urological scientific journals. METHODS: We identified 28 cases of bladder endometriosis published in the Spanish literature. The treatment performed in each case has been studied, as well as the treatment of relapses and follow-up after definitive treatment. Age and history of caesarean section were registered. RESULTS: Mean patient age was 35 years, with a median of 34 years and limits of 27 and 48. The history of caesarean section is present in 11 cases (39%). Several therapeutic regiments have been followed. Watchful waiting was only undertaken in one case due to the absence of urinary symptoms. Three patients received medical therapy initially. Only one of them had a favourable response. The other two underwent partial cystectomy and transurethral resection (TUR) respectively due to negative response. Transurethral resection was the most frequently used therapeutic modality; it was performed in 19 patients in addition to the aforementioned case. Bladder endometriosis recurred in 7 cases after TUR. Four of these cases underwent partial cystectomy, one of them laparoscopic, and three a second transurethral resection. Partial cystectomy was the initial therapeutic option in 5 cases. 4 of them were open and 1 laparoscopic. No recurrences have been described after partial cystectomy, including those performed for TUR failures. Mean follow-up was 37 months and median follow-up 12 months, being the limits 3 and 192 months. CONCLUSIONS: To date most published cases of bladder endometriosis appear in urologic journals. The most common therapeutic modality is transurethral resection, carried out in 20 cases (71%). However, it is necessary to inform the patient about the chances of treatment failure after TUR, around 35% after this review. Finally, the reported cases treated by laparoscopic partial cystectomy have been published by gynaecologists.

The influence of the military on civilian uncertainty about modern anaesthesia between its origins in 1846 and the end of the Crimean War in 1856.
Metcalfe NH. Anaesthesia 2005 Jun;60(6):594-601.

Examination of primary and secondary sources suggests that the military did not significantly help establish the position of modern
anaesthesia in society until evidence and experience from the Crimean War was obtained and disseminated.

Psychophysical evidence of hypersensitivity in subjects with interstitial cystitis.
Ness TJ, Powell-Boone T, Cannon R, Lloyd LK, Fillingim RB.
J Urol 2005 Jun;173(6):1983-7.

PURPOSE: We quantified differences in somatic and visceral sensation in healthy subjects and subjects with interstitial cystitis (IC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 13 subjects with IC and 13 healthy subjects answered psychological questionnaires and underwent psychophysical testing of thermal and pressure thresholds for sensation as well as the ischemic forearm test of pain tolerance. A subset of subjects also underwent bladder sensory testing with the determination of 3 consecutive cystometrograms. Ratings of intensity and unpleasantness were determined. RESULTS: Subjects with IC were significantly more sensitive to deep tissue measures of sensation related to pressure, ischemia and bladder than healthy subjects. Cutaneous thermal pain measures were similar in the 2 groups. Psychological measures indicated higher reactivity in subjects with IC. CONCLUSIONS: Similar to other visceral pain disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome, hypersensitivity to somatic stimuli was noted in subjects with IC. This suggests altered central mechanisms in the processing of sensory events from the bladder.

A prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind study of pelvic electromagnetic therapy for the treatment of chronic pelvic pain syndrome with 1 year of followup.
Rowe E, Smith C, Laverick L, Elkabir J, Witherow RO, Patel A.
J Urol 2005 Jun;173(6):2044-7.

PURPOSE: Male chronic pelvic pain syndrome is a condition of uncertain etiology and treatment is often unsatisfactory. There is evidence that the symptom complex may result from pelvic floor muscular dysfunction and/or neural hypersensitivity/inflammation. We hypothesized that the application of electromagnetic therapy may have a neuromodulating effect on pelvic floor spasm and neural hypersensitivity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Following full Stamey localization men with National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases category III prostatitis were prospectively randomized to receive active electromagnetic or placebo therapy. Active therapy consisted of 15 minutes of pelvic floor stimulation at a frequency of 10 Hz, followed by a further 15 minutes at 50 Hz, twice weekly for 4 weeks. Patients were evaluated at baseline, 3 months and 1 year after treatment using validated visual analog scores. RESULTS: A total of 21 men with a mean age of 47.8 years (range 25 to 67) were analyzed. Mean symptom scores decreased significantly in the actively treated group at 3 months and 1 year (p <0.05), unlike the placebo group, which showed no significant change (p >0.05). Subanalysis of those receiving active treatment showed that the greatest improvement was in pain related symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The novel use of pelvic floor electromagnetic therapy may be a promising new noninvasive option for chronic pelvic pain syndrome in men.

Botulinum toxin a injection of the obturator internus muscle for chronic perineal pain.
Gajraj NM.
J Pain 2005 May;6(5):333-7.

Chronic perineal pain is often a difficult condition to manage. Current treatments include pudendal nerve injections and pudendal nerve release surgery. The obturator internus muscle has a close relationship to the pudendal nerve and might be a potential target for therapeutic intervention. PERSPECTIVE: A case is presented of refractory perineal pain that was successfully treated by injecting the obturator internus muscle with botulinum toxin A.

Pain management.
Chan B, Leung P.
Can J Surg 2005 Apr;48(2):98-9.

Patients in pain: who should be responsible?
Gross M.
Can J Surg 2005 Apr;48(2):96-7.

Musculoskeletal causes of chronic pelvic pain: a systematic review of diagnosis: part I.
Tu FF, As-Sanie S, Steege JF.
Obstet Gynecol Surv 2005 Jun;60(6):379-85.

Chronic pelvic pain in women has multifactorial etiology, but pelvic musculoskeletal dysfunction is not routinely evaluated as a cause by gynecologists. Whether diagnostic tests can reliably identify women with such conditions is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the level of support in the literature for diagnostic tests of pelvic musculoskeletal problems. We used a set of key words pertaining to pain and the pelvic musculoskeletal structures to initially review the PUBMED database. Study inclusion was restricted to English-language publications that reported a patient-related chronic pelvic pain diagnostic test. Relevant bibliographies were also searched, and outside consultation with a pain researcher was sought to identify additional needed studies. For each selected article, 2 investigators separately summarized relevant data on study characteristics, patient profiles, and test efficacy. Discrepancies were resolved by discussion. Six diagnostic studies were identified that met entry criteria. No gold standard diagnostic tests exist for pelvic musculoskeletal problems, and the methodologic quality of available studies is low. Studies defining such clinically useful tests are needed to further refine a rational approach to chronic pelvic pain management. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After completion of this article, the reader should be able to describe the paucity of evidence-based literature and valid consensus of diagnostic criteria and modalities in defining the musculoskeletal causes of chronic pelvic pain in women, to recall that there is no gold standard diagnostic test for pelvic musculoskeletal problems, and to recall that the statistical evaluation of the methods described were wanting.

Medial thigh pain: neurology or urology?
Antolak C, Canales B, Monga M
Urology 2005 Apr;65(4):799.

Possible selves in chronic pain: self-pain enmeshment, adjustment and acceptance.
Morley S, Davies C, Barton S
Pain 2005 May;115(1-2):84-94.

The aim of this study was to test whether enmeshment of self and pain predicted adjustment (depression and acceptance) in a chronic pain population. 89 chronic pain patients completed standardized self-report measures of depression and acceptance and generated characteristics describing their current actual self, hoped-for self and feared-for self, and made judgments about the degree to which their future possible selves (hoped-for and feared-for) were dependent on the absence or presence of pain, i.e. enmeshed with pain. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that after accounting for the influence of demographics (age, gender), pain characteristics and the degree of role interference attributable to pain, the proportion of hoped-for self characteristics that could be achieved even with the presence of pain predicted the magnitude of depression and acceptance scores. The findings are discussed with reference to the enmeshment hypothesis and theories of self-discrepancy, self-regulation and hopelessness.

Gender, interpersonal transactions, and the perception of pain: An experimental analysis.
Jackson T, Iezzi T, Chen H, Ebnet S, Eglitis K
J Pain 2005 Apr;6(4):228-36.

Two experiments assessed how interpersonal transactions influence responses to cold pressor pain in women versus men. In Experiment 1, 91 young adults (57 women, 34 men) were randomly assigned to either a no transaction (NT) condition in which they coped alone with the cold pressor test or a transaction opportunity (TO) condition in which they also had the option of interacting with an empathetic, reflecting experimenter. Compared to men, women had lower pain tolerance and reported more pain and catastrophizing, although there were no gender differences in support seeking or other ways of coping. Within the TO condition, women were no more likely than men to initiate a transaction, but female speakers were more pain-focused than male speakers, and speaking with the empathetic interaction partner had generally negative effects on pain perception and coping. In Experiment 2, 126 young adults (76 women, 50 men) were randomly assigned to NT, TO, or experimenter-directed (1) Distraction (DT), (2) Reinterpretation (RT), or (3) Encouragement (ET) conditions. Although men had similar levels of pain tolerance across the 5 transaction conditions, women in NT and TO conditions exhibited reduced tolerance compared with those in the DT, RT, and ET conditions. Pain tolerance times among women in DT, RT, and ET conditions were equal to or exceeded those of men in these conditions. Together, findings suggest the nature of interpersonal transactions exerts a greater influence on women's responses to noxious stimulation than those of men. PERSPECTIVE: This study adds to literature indicating that women exhibit reduced tolerance for experimentally induced pain compared with men. These results suggest that the nature of interpersonal transactions also affects women's responses to noxious stimulation, more than those of men.

The effect of biofeedback physical therapy in men with Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome Type III.
Cornel EB, van Haarst EP, Schaarsberg RW, Geels J
Eur Urol 2005 May;47(5):607-11. Epub 2005 Jan 22.

Recent studies suggest that the symptoms of chronic non-bacterial prostatitis (CP) or Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CPPS) may be due to or associated with pelvic floor muscle dysfunction. Therapies aimed to improve relaxation and proper use of the pelvic floor muscles such as biofeedback physical therapy and pelvic floor re-education are expected to give symptom improvement. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of biofeedback physical therapy on the symptoms of men with CPPS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between March 2000 to March 2004, 33 consecutive men were diagnosed with CP/CPPS based on history including the NIH-CPSI questionnaire and physical examination including pelvic floor muscle tonus, urinalysis, uroflowmetry with residual urine measurement and transrectal ultrasonography of the prostate. All patients participated in a pelvic floor biofeedback re-educating program. A rectal EMG probe was used to measure resting tone of the pelvic floor muscles and was helpful for instruction pelvic floor muscles contraction and relaxation. RESULTS: Two of the 33 men dropped out. In the remaining 31 men, mean age 43.9 years (range 23-70), the mean total Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) changed from 23.6 (range 11-34) at baseline to 11.4 (range 1-25) after treatment (p<0.001). The mean value of the pelvic floor muscle tonus was 4.9 at diagnosis (range 2.0-10.0) and decreased to 1.7 (range 0.5-2.8) after treatment (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our study clearly demonstrates a significant effect of biofeedback physical therapy and pelvic floor re-education for CP/CPPS patients, leading to a significant improvement of the symptom score. The correlation between the pelvic muscle tonus results with NIH-CPSI score is highly suggestive that the pelvic floor plays an important role in the pathophysiology of CP/CPPS.

Morphine, gabapentin, or their combination for neuropathic pain.
Gilron I, Bailey JM, Tu D, Holden RR, Weaver DF, Houlden RL
N Engl J Med 2005 Mar 31;352(13):1324-34.

BACKGROUND: The available drugs to treat neuropathic pain have incomplete efficacy and dose-limiting adverse effects. We compared the efficacy of a combination of gabapentin and morphine with that of each as a single agent in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy or postherpetic neuralgia. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, active placebo-controlled, four-period crossover trial, patients received daily active placebo (lorazepam), sustained-release morphine, gabapentin, and a combination of gabapentin and morphine--each given orally for five weeks. The primary outcome measure was mean daily pain intensity in patients receiving a maximal tolerated dose; secondary outcomes included pain (rated according to the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire), adverse effects, maximal tolerated doses, mood, and quality of life. RESULTS: Of 57 patients who underwent randomization (35 with diabetic neuropathy and 22 with postherpetic neuralgia), 41 completed the trial. Mean daily pain (on a scale from 0 to 10, with higher numbers indicating more severe pain) at a maximal tolerated dose of the study drug was as follows: 5.72 at baseline, 4.49 with placebo, 4.15 with gabapentin, 3.70 with morphine, and 3.06 with the gabapentin-morphine combination (P<0.05 for the combination vs. placebo, gabapentin, and morphine). Total scores on the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (on a scale from 0 to 45, with higher numbers indicating more severe pain) at a maximal tolerated dose were 14.4 with placebo, 10.7 with gabapentin, 10.7 with morphine, and 7.5 with the gabapentin-morphine combination (P<0.05 for the combination vs. placebo, gabapentin, and morphine). The maximal tolerated doses of morphine and gabapentin were lower (P<0.05) with the combination than for each drug as single agent. At the maximal tolerated dose, the gabapentin-morphine combination resulted in a higher frequency of constipation than gabapentin alone (P<0.05) and a higher frequency of dry mouth than morphine alone (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Gabapentin and morphine combined achieved better analgesia at lower doses of each drug than either as a single agent, with constipation, sedation, and dry mouth as the most frequent adverse effects.

Psychological approaches to understanding and treating disease-related pain.
Keefe FJ, Abernethy AP, C Campbell L
Annu Rev Psychol 2005;56:601-30.

Psychologists are increasingly involved in the assessment and treatment of disease-related pain such as pain secondary to arthritis or cancer. This review is divided into four sections. In the first section, we provide a conceptual background on this area that discusses the limitations of the biomedical model of disease-related pain and traces the evolution of psychosocial theories of pain. In the second section, we discuss special issues and challenges involved in working with persons having disease-related pain, including the reluctance of some persons to report pain and to become involved in psychological treatments for pain. Section three provides an overview of psychosocial research conducted on arthritis pain and cancer pain that addresses both psychosocial factors related to pain and psychosocial interventions for pain management. In the final section, we describe important future directions, including strategies for disseminating psychosocial treatments and disparities in pain management.

Written emotional expression produces health benefits in fibromyalgia patients.
Broderick JE, Junghaenel DU, Schwartz JE
Psychosom Med 2005 Mar-Apr;67(2):326-34.

OBJECTIVE: Written expression of traumatic experiences, an intervention found to have health benefits in rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, and breast cancer, was tested in a randomized, controlled trial with female fibromyalgia patients. It was hypothesized that relative to controls, patients engaging in the writing intervention would experience improved status on psychological well-being and physical health variables. METHODS: Patients (N = 92) were randomized into a trauma writing group, a control writing group, or usual care control group. The two writing groups wrote in the laboratory for 20 minutes on 3 days at 1-week intervals. Psychological well-being, pain, and fatigue were the primary outcome variables. Assessments were made at pretreatment, posttreatment, 4-month follow-up, and 10-month follow-up. RESULTS: The trauma writing group experienced significant reductions in pain (effect size [ES] = 0.49) and fatigue (ES = 0.62) and better psychological well-being (ES = 0.47) at the 4-month follow-up relative to the control groups. Benefits were not maintained at the 10-month follow-up. CONCLUSION: Fibromyalgia patients experienced short-term benefits in psychological and health variables through emotional expression of personal traumatic experiences.

Rectal endometriosis.
Yoshida S, Fu KI, Sano Y, Taku K, Endo Y
Gastrointest Endosc 2005 Mar;61(3):433-4.

Physicians' Assessments Versus Measured Symptoms of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1: Presence and Severity.
Perez RS, Burm PE, Zuurmond WW, Bezemer PD, Brink HE, de Lange JJ
Clin J Pain 2005 May/June;21(3):272-276.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of physician's judgements of symptoms associated with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1. METHODS: The validity of physicians' judgments was assessed using measurements with regard to presence and severity of pain, temperature and volume asymmetry, and reduction in active range of motion in 66 Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 outpatients. Measurements were performed using Visual Analog Scales and McGill (number of words chosen total) for pain, infrared thermography for temperature differences, water displacement volumeters for volume differences, and hand-held goniometers for active range of motion. Physicians were blind to the outcomes of the measurements. RESULTS: In general, physicians were capable of determining presence or absence of measured symptoms and indicate the direction of the symptom asymmetry. Establishing presence of temperature and volume asymmetries was, however, inadequate. Poor to moderate correspondence was found for the severity of individual symptoms between physicians' judgments and measurements. For the total number of assessments, correlation coefficients ranged from 0.39 for Volume to 0.68 for Pain. In general, lower correlations and percentages of association for Volume and Temperature were found. Monitoring changes between consecutive patient assessments showed poor correspondence between both assessment methods, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.25 for Volume to 0.37 for Pain. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that establishing the presence of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 symptoms, except for temperature and volume asymmetries, and monitoring of disease progression based on these symptoms can be performed by clinical judgment. The severity of the individual symptoms evaluated in this study should be measured with reliable and valid measurement instruments.

Oral analgesics for acute nonspecific pain.
Sachs CJ
Am Fam Physician 2005 Mar 1;71(5):913-8.

Physicians most often recommend or prescribe oral medication for relief of acute pain. This review of the available evidence supports the use of acetaminophen in doses up to 1,000 mg as the initial choice for mild to moderate acute pain. In some cases, modest improvements in analgesic efficacy can be achieved by adding or changing to a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). The safest NSAID is ibuprofen in doses of 400 mg. Higher doses may offer somewhat greater analgesia but with more adverse effects. Other NSAIDs have failed to demonstrate consistently greater efficacy or safety than ibuprofen. Although they may be more expensive, these alternatives may be chosen for their more convenient dosing. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors provide equivalent efficacy to traditional NSAIDs but lack a demonstrable safety advantage for the treatment of acute pain. For more severe acute pain, the evidence supports the addition of oral narcotic medications such as hydrocodone, morphine, or oxycodone. Specific oral analgesics that have shown poor efficacy and side effects include codeine, propoxyphene, and tramadol.

Pentosan polysulfate sodium therapy for men with chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a multicenter, randomized, placebo controlled study.
Nickel JC, Forrest JB, Tomera K, Hernandez-Graulau J, Moon TD, Schaeffer AJ, Krieger JN, Zeitlin SI, Evans RJ, Lama DJ, Neal DE Jr, Sant GR
J Urol 2005 Apr;173(4):1252-5.

PURPOSE: We evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS) for the treatment of men with chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS), National Institutes of Health (NIH) category III. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a 16-week double-blind study 100 men with a clinical diagnosis of CPPS were randomized to receive 300 mg PPS or placebo 3 times daily. Clinical Global Improvement (CGI) was the primary outcome measure. Additional outcome measures were the NIH-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (CPSI), Subjective Global Assessment and Symptom Severity Index assessment tools. RESULTS: Significantly more patients receiving PPS experienced moderate to marked improvement based on CGI assessment (18 or 37% vs 8 or 18%, p = 0.04). However, mean CGI scores were not significantly different between the PPS group (1.0) and placebo groups (1.0 vs 0.6, p = 0.107). All NIH-CPSI domains suggested a positive effect for PPS and for total NIH-CPSI the difference approached statistical significance (-5.9 or 22% vs -3.2 or 12%, p = 0.068). The PPS group showed significantly greater improvement in NIH-CPSI quality of life domain scores than the placebo group (-2.0 or 22% vs -1.0 or 12%, p = 0.031). Of patients receiving PPS 67% and 80% of those receiving placebo completed the 16-week study. Diarrhea, nausea and headache were the most common adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Pentosan polysulfate (900 mg daily) was more likely than placebo to provide relief for CPPS symptoms.

The effectiveness of multidisciplinary rehabilitation in the treatment of fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial.
Lemstra M, Olszynski WP
Clin J Pain 2005 Mar-Apr;21(2):166-74.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of multidisciplinary rehabilitation in the treatment of fibromyalgia in comparison to standard medical care. METHODS: Seventy-nine men and women were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The intervention group consisted of a rheumatologist and physical therapist intake and discharge, 18 group supervised exercise therapy sessions, 2 group pain and stress management lectures, 1 group education lecture, 1 group dietary lecture, and 2 massage therapy sessions. The control group consisted of standard medical care with the patients' family physician. Outcome measures included self-perceived health status, pain-related disability, average pain intensity, depressed mood, days in pain, hours in pain, prescription and nonprescription medication usage, and work status. Outcomes were measured at the end of the 6-week intervention and at 15-month follow-up. RESULTS: Thirty-five out of 43 patients from the intervention group and 36 out of 36 patients from the control group completed the study. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups prior to intervention. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed that the intervention group, in comparison to the control group, experienced statistically significant changes at intervention completion in self-perceived health status, average pain intensity, pain related disability, depressed mood, days in pain, and hours in pain, but no significant differences in nonprescription drug use, prescription drug use, or work status. At 15 months, all health outcomes retained their significance except health status. Nonprescription and prescription drug use demonstrated significant reductions at 15 months. Binary logistic regression indicated that long-term changes in Pain Disability Index were influenced by long-term exercise adherence and income status. CONCLUSIONS: Positive health-related outcomes in this mostly unresponsive condition can be obtained with a low-cost, group multidisciplinary intervention in a community-based, nonclinical setting.

Rational integration of pharmacologic, behavioral, and rehabilitation strategies in the treatment of chronic pain.
Gallagher RM
Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2005 Mar;84(3 Suppl):S64-76.

Historically, the concept of a mind-body duality in medicine, which supports a biomedical approach to pain management, has impeded the development of adequate treatments for persistent pain conditions and diseases. Although usually there is an initiating pathophysiologic nociceptive cause of pain, over time, the conditioning of neurophysiologic and affective systems by environmental and internal events can promote chronicity and frustrate the efforts of physicians to attenuate nociceptive processes. A full elucidation of the environmental and psychological factors contributing to pain and suffering may prove difficult using a traditional biomedical approach. Prevention of chronicity, by early identification and treatment of pain generators and the pain response to tissue injury and by recognition of those general factors that contribute to risk for chronicity (e.g., depressive illness, poor pain control), is crucial for any healthcare system that wishes to reduce the morbidity and costs of persistent pain. Goal-directed, outcomes-focused biopsychosocial treatment plans that efficiently integrate physical, behavioral, and medical approaches more frequently achieve better pain control and improved function. The following article presents a general overview of evidence for effectiveness of these approaches and some central principles of integrated treatment planning.

Management of peripheral neuropathic pain.
Stacey BR
Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2005 Mar;84(3 Suppl):S4-16.

Neuropathic pain results from a variety of medical conditions encountered in physiatric practice, including infection, trauma, metabolic abnormalities, and nerve compression. Unlike pain resulting from nociceptive or inflammatory processes, neuropathic pain is associated with primary lesion or dysfunction of the nervous system itself and is often difficult to treat. Existing treatment options include drug therapy (e.g., anticonvulsants, the lidocaine patch 5%, antidepressants, opioids, tramadol) or interventional treatments (e.g., peripheral or neuraxial nerve blockade, implanted spinal cord stimulators, implanted intrathecal catheters). The following article presents an overview of the cellular mechanisms associated with neuropathic pain, summarizes the results of randomized, controlled trials with the major classes of available drugs, and discusses treatment options that provide a rational basis for pharmacotherapy.

Pharmacotherapy of complex regional pain syndrome.
Harden RN
Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2005 Mar;84(3 Suppl):S17-28.

Complex regional pain syndrome has both nociceptive/inflammatory and neuropathic elements and is always (by definition) associated with abnormal activity of the sympathetic nervous system. There is good evidence that complex regional pain syndrome, as currently conceptualized, ultimately includes central sensitization and has motor abnormalities. The lack of a standard diagnostic test or a specific mechanistically based diagnostic scheme has hindered the conduct of well-designed trials, and to date, there is very little evidence supporting an effective treatment. Fortunately, some randomized, controlled trials of drug therapies have been conducted, and systematic reviews have been published of related neuropathic conditions, from which the results have been extrapolated to clinical use in complex regional pain syndrome. The following article presents an overview of available data regarding drug and interventional treatment options for complex regional pain syndrome and of those relevant pharmacotherapies we can derive from the neuropathy literature. As with most chronic pain syndromes, pharmacotherapy coupled with functional restoration and an interdisciplinary approach to treatment are essential to a successful outcome.

Decompression and transposition of the pudendal nerve in pudendal neuralgia: a randomized controlled trial and long-term evaluation.
Robert R, Labat JJ, Bensignor M, Glemain P, Deschamps C, Raoul S, Hamel O
Eur Urol 2005 Mar;47(3):403-8.

BACKGROUND: We assess that pudendal neuralgia is a tunnel syndrome due to a ligamentous entrapment of the pudendal nerve and have treated 400 patients surgically since 1987. We have had no major complication. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to evaluate our procedure. METHODS: A sequential, randomized controlled trial to compare decompression of the pudendal nerve with non-surgical treatment. Patients aged 18-70, had chronic, uni/bilateral perineal pain, positive temporary response to blocks at the ischial spine and in Alcock's canal. They were randomly assigned to surgery (n=16) and control (n=16) groups. Primary end point was improvement at 3 months following surgery or assignment to the non-surgery group. Secondary end points were improvement at 12 months and at 4 years following surgical intervention. RESULTS: A significantly higher proportion of the surgery group was improved at 3 months. On intention-to-treat analysis 50% of the surgery group reported improvement in pain at 3 months versus 6.2% of the non-surgery group (p=.0155); in the analysis by treatment protocol the figures were 57.1% versus 6.7% (p=.0052). At 12 months, 71.4% of the surgery group compared with 13.3% of the non-surgery group were improved, analyzing by treatment protocol (p=.0025). Only those randomized to surgery were evaluated at 4 years: 8 remained improved at 4 years. No complications were encountered. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we demonstrate that decompression of the pudendal nerve is an effective and safe treatment for cases of chronic pudendal neuralgia that have been unresponsive to analgesia and nerve blocks. Following surgery, other medical interventions may be necessary.

Surgical Management of 10 Genitofemoral Neuralgias at the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center.
Murovic JA, Kim DH, Tiel RL, Kline DG
Neurosurgery 2005 Feb;56(2):298-303.

OBJECTIVE: This is a retrospective review of the charts of 10 patients with genitofemoral neuralgia who underwent neurectomy at the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center between 1967 and 2000. Operations associated with these neuralgias and postoperative pain outcomes were analyzed. METHODS: The charts of 10 patients with genitofemoral neuralgias were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: The distribution of the 10 genitofemoral neuralgias with regard to right or left side and sex was found to be equal. L1 and L2 nerve blocks had resulted in a complete or substantial decrease in pain before neurectomy was recommended. Of six iatrogenic injuries (60%), gynecological surgery, including two hysterectomy procedures, resulted in a total of three genitofemoral neuralgias (50%), and vasectomy procedures antedated two nerve injuries (33%). Four (40%) of the 10 patients had injury to the genitofemoral nerve after blunt abdominal trauma. Genitofemoral neurectomy was performed in all genitofemoral neuralgia patients after conservative therapy had failed. This procedure resulted in considerable pain relief in all 10 patients, whether their injury was the result of iatrogenic causes or trauma. CONCLUSION: Genitofemoral neuralgias are infrequent conditions; however, 10 patients were accrued and analyzed in this study, and most had considerable or complete pain relief after neurectomy.

The reliability and validity of a self-report version of the FIM instrument in persons with neuromuscular disease and chronic pain.
Jensen MP, Abresch RT, Carter GT
Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005 Jan;86(1):116-22.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reliability and validity of a self-report version of the FIM instrument (FIM-SR). DESIGN: Survey study. SETTING: Rehabilitation research program. PARTICIPANTS: Adults with neuromuscular disorders (NMD) and chronic pain (N=141). INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The FIM-SR and Medical Outcomes 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). RESULTS: The internal consistency coefficients of the FIM-SR scales were all adequate to excellent (Cronbach alpha range, .73-.98; median, .96). Correlations between the FIM-SR scales and SF-36 scales supported the concurrent validity of the former. Also, the FIM-SR scales associated with motor function discriminated between those subjects who reported being ambulatory and those who reported requiring use of a wheelchair or other assistive device for getting around. Finally, FIM-SR scales discriminated between different types of NMDs, with patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis showing significantly lower scores on the FIM-SR self-care, motor, and total scores than all other NMD diagnostic groups, and showing significantly lower scores on the FIM-SR sphincter control, mobility, and locomotion scales than most of the other diagnostic groups. CONCLUSIONS: The FIM-SR scales appear to be reliable and valid measures of independence in 6 specific (self-care, sphincter control, mobility, locomotion, communication, social cognition), and 3 global (motor, cognition, total) areas of functioning in persons with NMD.

Describing pain with physical disability: narrative interviews and the McGill Pain Questionnaire.
Dudgeon BJ, Ehde DM, Cardenas DD, Engel JM, Hoffman AJ, Jensen MP
Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005 Jan;86(1):109-15.

OBJECTIVES: To identify common pain descriptors used by people with physical disability-related pain and to suggest words that are likely to prompt responses in clinical interviews and assessments. DESIGN: Open-ended interviews were coded and then contrasted with responses to a pain questionnaire, obtained through mail or interview surveys. SETTING: Rehabilitation research program. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-eight people with physical disability-related pain in a series (n=54) of in-depth interviews and 1053 participants with disabilities who responded to mailed questionnaires or structured interviews about pain and its impact (459 with acquired lower-limb amputation, 471 with spinal cord injury, 123 with cerebral palsy). INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pain interview descriptions and McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ). RESULTS: Different pain experiences were reflected in narrative descriptions and self-report questionnaire responses. We report the common terms, but across diagnoses use of terms does not appear to clearly differentiate distinct pain phenomenon. Narrative interviews support the use of several MPQ pain descriptors. However, discrete descriptors are recommended when assessing adults with physical disability. CONCLUSIONS: We identified pain descriptors that appear to be most useful in assessing daily life and participation experiences with physical disability-related pain. These may be clinically useful, but caution is advised when doing diagnostic workups based solely on sensory and affective pain descriptions.

Self-management of chronic pain: a population-based study.
Blyth FM, March LM, Nicholas MK, Cousins MJ
Pain 2005 Feb;113(3):285-92.

While effective self-management of chronic pain is important, clinic-based studies exclude the more typical pattern of self-management that occurs in the community, often without reference to health professionals. We examined specific hypotheses about the use of self-management strategies in a population-based study of chronic pain subjects. Data came from an Australian population-based random digit dialling computer-assisted telephone survey and included 474 adults aged 18 or over with chronic pain (response rate 73.4%). Passive strategies were more often reported than active ones: passive strategies such as taking medication (47%), resting (31.5%), and using hot/cold packs (23.4%) were most commonly reported, while the most commonly reported active strategy was exercising (25.8%). Only 33.5% of those who used active behavioural and/or cognitive strategies used them exclusively, while 67.7% of those who used passive behavioural and/or conventional medical strategies did so exclusively. Self-management strategies were associated with both pain-related disability and use of health services in multiple logistic regression models. Using passive strategies increased the likelihood of having high levels of pain-related disability (adjusted OR 2.59) and more pain-related health care visits (adjusted OR 2.9); using active strategies substantially reduced the likelihood of having high levels of pain-related disability (adjusted OR 0.2). In conclusion, we have shown in a population-based study that clinical findings regarding self-management strategies apply to the broader population and advocate that more attention be given to community-based strategies for improving awareness and uptake of active self-management strategies for chronic pain.

Fibromyalgia: evidence for deficits in positive affect regulation.
Zautra AJ, Fasman R, Reich JW, Harakas P, Johnson LM, Olmsted ME, Davis MC
Psychosom Med 2005 Jan-Feb;67(1):147-55.

Objective: Fibromyalgia (FMS) is characterized by chronic pain, high psychiatric comorbidity, and the absence of observable pathology. Our objective was to examine positive and negative affective indices, both at the trait and contextual levels, in FMS compared with a chronic pain control group, osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: The sample consisted of 126 female FMS (87) and OA (39) patients from the community. Participants answered a self-report questionnaire assessing demographic and personality variables and were interviewed regarding average pain, affect, anxiety, and depression. Participants were then interviewed weekly for up to 12 weeks regarding pain, affect, fatigue, perceived interpersonal stress (IS), and positive interpersonal events (PE). Results: FMS participants reported lower levels of positive affect (p < .01) and extraversion (p < .01) than OA participants. There were no significant differences between groups in negative affect, depression, anxiety, or neuroticism after controlling for age and average pain. At the weekly level, FMS participants reported lower levels of positive affect (p < .01), but not negative affect. Furthermore, during weeks of elevated IS, FMS participants evidenced steeper declines in positive affect than OA participants (p < .01). Conclusions: Despite the predominance of literature focusing on psychologic disturbance in FMS, these analyses identified dysfunctional positive affect regulation as a key feature of FMS. FMS status was uniquely characterized by lower levels of positive affect, especially during stressful weeks. These findings challenge current conceptualizations of FMS and point to new directions for interventions that focus on improving positive affective resources, especially during times of stress.

Electronic diary assessment of pain-related variables: Is reactivity a problem?
Aaron LA, Turner JA, Mancl L, Brister H, Sawchuk CN
J Pain 2005 Feb;6(2):107-15.

Reactive measures (measures that change the phenomenon assessed) cause problems in interpreting any changes observed. This study examined whether electronic daily diary measures of pain, activity interference, mood, and pain beliefs were reactive in terms of both observable data and patient-reported effects. Patients with chronic temporomandibular disorder pain (N = 71, 86% female) completed electronic diaries 3 times daily for approximately 2 weeks and subsequently reported perceived effects on symptom-related variables. Seventy-three percent of patients reported that the assessment affected their pain, whereas 51%, 45%, and 39% thought that it affected their daily activities, mood, and beliefs, respectively. In contrast, there was little objective evidence of reactivity as observed in the electronic diary ratings; changes over 14 days were small (eg, predicted changes on 0 to 10 scales: positive mood, .1; pain, -.3; perceived control, -.5) and not statistically significant. Subjective reactivity was generally not significantly related to objective reactivity. The data suggest that patients view daily assessment as having positive and negative effects on pain-related variables, but pain-related measures do not show reactive effects. PERSPECTIVE: Electronic daily diary assessment methods hold the potential to increase knowledge concerning patients' experiences with pain and sequential relations between pain-related variables, but only if the measurement process is nonreactive. This study provides evidence that electronic diary assessment of pain-related variables is nonreactive.

Assessment of pain quality in chronic neuropathic and nociceptive pain clinical trials with the Neuropathic Pain Scale.
Jensen MP, Dworkin RH, Gammaitoni AR, Olaleye DO, Oleka N, Galer BS
J Pain 2005 Feb;6(2):98-106.

Although a number of measures of pain qualities exist, little research has examined the potential for these measures to identify the unique effects of pain treatments on different pain qualities. We examined the utility of the Neuropathic Pain Scale (NPS) for assessing changes in pain qualities after open label lidocaine patch 5% in 3 samples of patients: patients with peripheral neuropathic pain, low back pain, and osteoarthritis. With one exception ("cold" pain in subjects with low back pain), each of the NPS items showed significant change after open label lidocaine patch. In addition, significantly larger changes were observed for the NPS items reflecting global pain intensity and pain unpleasantness and for items assessing sharp and deep pain than for items assessing cold, sensitive, and itchy pain. The pattern of changes in pain qualities did not differ across the 3 diagnostic groups, but it did differ from the patterns of changes in pain qualities associated with other analgesic treatments. The results support the potential utility of the NPS for assessing the patterns of changes in pain qualities that can be observed after pain treatment. PERSPECTIVE: Pain clinical trials that include measures of pain qualities, such as the NPS, might identify distinct patterns of treatment effects on those pain qualities. This research might be used to help clinicians target analgesics to match the specific qualities associated with a patient's pain and to better understand the mechanisms of analgesic effects in drug development programs.

Physical and emotional functioning of adult patients with chronic abdominal pain: Comparison with patients with chronic back pain.
Townsend CO, Sletten CD, Bruce BK, Rome JD, Luedtke CA, Hodgson JE
J Pain 2005 Feb;6(2):75-83.

Adults with chronic abdominal pain remain a poorly defined population, despite the debilitation and depression associated with this therapeutically challenging condition. This study compared patients with chronic abdominal pain with an empirically well-known group of patients with chronic pain (back pain) to investigate similarities and differences in their physical and mental functioning. This retrospective, cross-sectional study included 136 patients with abdominal pain and 364 patients with back pain seen in a comprehensive pain rehabilitation center. Patients' functioning was assessed with the Short Form-36 Health Survey, Multidimensional Pain Inventory, Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale, and Coping Strategies Questionnaire-Catastrophizing subscale. Both the abdominal and back pain patients reported long-standing and severe pain, numerous surgery procedures, poor functioning, and high prevalence of depression. When age, education, and marital status were controlled for, analyses showed that although patients with abdominal pain reported significantly better physical functioning than patients with back pain (P << .001), their overall health perception was significantly poorer (P << .001). Although less prevalent, it is clear that patients with chronic abdominal pain exhibit poor functioning and prevalence of depression that are comparable to patients with chronic back pain. This study also suggests distinct characteristics that are vital to consider for effective treatment of this chronic pain population. PERSPECTIVE: As a result of being an overlooked and poorly defined population, adults with chronic abdominal pain might not receive adequate pain management treatment. Learning more about the physical and emotional functioning of patients with long-standing abdominal pain can increase recognition of the needs of and improve treatment for this population.

The measurement of pain, 1945-2000.
Noble B, Clark D, Meldrum M, Ten Have H, Seymour J, Winslow M, Paz S
J Pain Symptom Manage 2005 Jan;29(1):14-21.

Three strands of activity can be identified in the history of pain measurement. The first, psychophysics, dates back to the nineteenth century and measures the effect of analgesia by quantifying the noxious stimulation required to elicit pain, as well as the maximum stimulation tolerated. The second uses standardized questionnaires for patients, developed to categorize pain according to its emotional impact, distribution, character, and other dimensions. The third asks patients to report on pain intensity using rating scales, and is used in clinical trials where analgesics are evaluated and results can be combined to influence clinical guidelines and protocols. Although all three strands have found a place in modern clinical practice or drug development, it is the reporting of pain by patients undergoing treatment using simple scales of intensity which has emerged as the crucial method by which analgesic therapies can now be evaluated and compared.