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Incontinence: Urology (part I)

Transobturator SAFYRE sling is as effective as the transvaginal procedure.

Palma P, Riccetto C, Herrmann V, Dambros M, Thiel M, Bandiera S, Netto NR Jr. Int Urogynecol
J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2005 May 12;.

Introduction: SAFYRE is a monofilament polypropylene mesh held between two self-anchoring silicone columns that associates universal approach with readjustability. This unique feature allows for comparing two different approaches, i.e., transvaginal and transobturator, using the same sling. Materials and methods: A total of 226 patients with clinical and urodynamic diagnosis of SUI underwent SAFYRE sling procedure, which was performed either by transvaginal (group 1; 126 patients) or transobturator approach (group 2; 100 patients). The mean age was 63 years, in group 1 and 61 years in group 2. Physical examination, stress and pad test and urodynamic assessment were performed before the surgery. Results: The average follow-up period was 18 months in group 1 and 14 months in group 2. There was no difference in cure rate in both groups. The mean operative time was longer (25 min) in group 1 than in group 2 (15 min) (P<0.05). Bladder injury was significative greater in transvaginal group [respectively, 12/126 (0%) versus 0/100 (0%)]. Postoperatively, 20.6% of the patients presented transient irritative voiding symptoms in group transvaginal group as opposed to 10% in transobturator group. Discussion: SAFYRE sling performed by transobturator approach is as effective as the transvaginal procedure. Fewer complications and less operative time were additional advantages of the transobturator approach.

Laparoscopic Artificial Urinary Sphincter in Women for Type III Incontinence: Preliminary Results.
Ngninkeu BN, van Heugen G, di Gregorio M, Debie B, Evans A.
Eur Urol 2005 Jun;47(6):793-7. Epub 2005 Jan 28.

To evaluate the feasibility by laparoscopy of the AMS 800 (American Medical Systems, Inc., Minnetonka, Minnesota) artificial urinary sphincter in women with type III incontinence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four women with genuine stress incontinence due to intrinsic sphincter deficiency were operated by laparoscopy. Primary criterion was negative Marshall test. One patient had not undergone surgery, and we performed laparoscopic promonto-fixation in the same procedure. Two of the three remaining patients had previous TVT (tension-free vaginal tape) with complications regarding the perforation and erosion of bladder mucosa and urethra. Laparoscopic explantation of TVT was performed 3 months previously. In the last case, previous urethropexy and laparoscopic promonto-fixation in association with TVT were performed 10 years and 1 year ago respectively. A modified surgical procedure was used to implant the AMS 800 through laparoscopic transperitoneal approach, with placement of the cuff around the bladder neck between the periurethral fascia and the vagina. RESULTS: Mean age was 68.5 (50-79) years. Mean closure pressure was 24.5 (20-28) cm. Water. There was no erosion or extrusion. The only significant risk factor was previous surgery. The operative time was less than 3hours. The hospital stay was 8 days. The mean follow-up was 6 (3-13) months. Activation was done 6 to 8 weeks after implantation. Social continence (1 pad use with moderate leakage) and improvement of quality of life was reported in one patient. In this case the balloon was changed in order to obtain more pressure in the cuff. Resolution of incontinence was achieved in 3 patients. CONCLUSIONS: The AMS 800 can be successfully implanted by laparoscopy to treat women with genuine stress incontinence, a low urethral closure pressure and negative Marshall test indicating severe intrinsic sphincter deficiency. A long term follow-up is warranted to determine the efficacy and durability of this procedure.

A comparison of outcomes of transurethral versus suprapubic catheterization after Burch cystourethropexy.
Dunn TS, Figge J, Wolf D.
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2005 Jan-Feb;16(1):60-2; discussion 62. Epub 2004 Jul 28.3

The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of patients with transurethral vs suprapubic catheterization after Burch cystourethropexy. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients who had an anti-incontinence procedure primarily including Burch cystourethropexy with hysterectomy or Burch alone between July 1997 and June 2002 and comparing the outcomes of transurethral vs suprapubic catheters. The suprapubic and transurethral catheter placed were both 16-Fr Foley catheters. The variables analyzed were length of hospital stay, length of catheterization, postoperative fever, and urinary tract infection. The number of postoperative visits and complications within each group were also compared. Analysis was done utilizing Fisher's exact test and Wilcoxon's rank-sum analysis when indicated. We analyzed the charts of 217 patients. The outcomes of surgery (i.e., blood loss, postoperative morbidity, incidence of urinary tract infection, length of hospital stay) in each group did not statistically differ. There was a significant difference in length of catheterization: 7.1 days for the transurethral group and 9.61 days for the suprapubic group, a 1.79 day difference (p=0.001) and a difference in the number of visits for complaints of pain, 2.5 visits for the suprapubic group, 3.5 visits for the transurethral group (p=0.01). There were no differences in outcomes whether a transurethral or suprapubic catheter was used. There was a significant difference in duration of catheterization and extra visits to the clinic or hospital with a practitioner for the complaint of pain. Patients with a transurethral catheter had on the average one more visit than those with the suprapubic catheter.

Laparoscopic colposuspension versus urethropexy: a case-control series.
Dietz HP, Wilson PD.
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2005 Jan-Feb;16(1):15-8; discussion 18. Epub 2004 Jun 30.

Laparoscopic colposuspension (LC) was first described in the early 1990s as a technique distinct from open Burch colposuspension. Subsequently, however, LC was closely modelled along the lines of the Burch technique, and the distinct features of the original urethropexy (UP) were largely disregarded. In this case-control series the authors aimed to compare symptoms and anatomical outcomes after standard LC and urethropexy +/- paravaginal repair. The design was a clinical retrospective case-control trial. The setting was the urogynaecology and endogynaecology services of tertiary hospitals. Fifty patients after LC and 50 women after UP surgery, matched for age, body mass index, previous surgery, pre-existing urge incontinence and length of follow-up (1.01 year, range 0.02-3.54 years) for LC and 0.98 years (range 0.06-3.55 years) for UP). Intervention consisted of standardised interview and translabial ultrasound imaging. There were no significant differences for subjective cure of stress incontinence (80% for UP vs. 74% for LC), postoperative urge incontinence, frequency and nocturia. Significantly more UP patients complained of voiding dysfunction (p=0.01). Significant differences were found for urethral rotation, position of the bladder neck on Valsalva and bladder neck descent on Valsalva (all p<0.001). Both procedures were shown to be effective in curing stress incontinence. The incidence of bladder symptoms was comparable, with the exception of voiding difficulty. Significant differences were observed regarding anatomical appearances, with urethropexies showing more recurrent bladder neck hypermobility and cystocele.

Influence of estradiol pretreatment on antimuscarinic action of oxybutynin in rat detrusor muscle.
Yildiz O, Ozgok Y, Seyrek M, Un I, Kilciler M, Tuncer M
Urology 2005 Apr;65(4):800-3.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the antimuscarinic effect of oxybutynin in the rat detrusor muscle after estrogen pretreatment because, to our knowledge, no study has been done on the interaction of estrogen with antimuscarinic drugs. Estrogen has been shown to affect muscarinic receptors in the detrusor muscle of animals. In addition, oxybutynin has been shown to block muscarinic receptors in the bladder. METHODS: Estradiol benzoate (150 microg/kg) or saline was given subcutaneously to virgin female Wistar albino rats (n = 6, each group) for 10 consecutive days. On the 11th day, isolated detrusor muscle strips were taken, and acetylcholine (ACh)-induced contractions were evaluated in the absence or presence of oxybutynin (10 and 100 nM). RESULTS: ACh induced concentration-dependent contractions in the detrusor muscle. In the estradiol-pretreated group, the maximum of the ACh-induced contractions was diminished compared with that in the control group (P < 0.05). Oxybutynin (10 and 100 nM) inhibited ACh-induced contractions competitively (pK(B) 8.85). In the estradiol-pretreated group, the concentration-response curve to ACh was shifted further to the right in the presence of oxybutynin (100 nM). CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated for the first time that oxybutynin further inhibits ACh-induced and muscarinic receptor-mediated contractions in rat detrusor muscle after pretreatment with estrogen.

Randomized comparison of the suprapubic arc sling procedure vs tension-free vaginal taping for stress incontinent women.
Tseng LH, Wang AC, Lin YH, Li SJ, Ko YJ
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2005 May-Jun;16(3):230-5. Epub 2004 Oct 27.

The purpose of this study was to compare the surgical outcome and attendant complications of the suprapubic arc (SPARC) sling and tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedures. Sixty-two women with genuine stress incontinence (GSI) alone or combined with pelvic prolapse less than International Continence Society (ICS) stage II were randomly allocated to either SPARC or TVT groups. A routine suprapubic ultrasonography was performed for all patients 1 day after the anti-incontinence operation. A comparison of the peri- and postoperative results comprising surgical outcomes and complications revealed no significant differences between the two groups. Although the difference in the rates of bladder injury was not statistically significant (SPARC 12.9 vs TVT 0.0%, p=0.112), it was clinically significant. Routine suprapubic ultrasonography revealed eight subjects had retropubic hematomas greater than 5 cm. The cure rate for SPARC was not significantly different from TVT (80.7 vs 87.1%, p=0.706). We concluded that the SPARC sling and TVT procedures proved to be equally effective. Subsequent suprapubic ultrasonography, in particular for the symptomatic patients, was found to be of clinical merit.

Use of three-dimensional ultrasound scan to assess the clinical importance of midurethral placement of the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) for treatment of incontinence.
Ng CC, Lee LC, Han WH
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2005 Jun;16(3):220-225. Epub 2004 Nov 6.

The aim of the study is to illustrate that the midurethral positioning of the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) may not be necessary to achieve continence. Our secondary aim is to highlight that a fair number of successfully performed TVT procedures do not result in midurethral position of the tape. A review of 31 women who underwent TVT operations and consecutively returned for their follow-up visits from July 2003 to November 2003 was conducted. Their TVT procedures were performed between March 2000 and August 2003. Transperineal three-dimensional ultrasound was used to identify and obtain objective measurements of the position of the TVT tape relative to the urethra. Any patients with significant coexisting vault or uterovaginal prolapse were surgically corrected at the same time. Their stress urinary incontinence was objectively diagnosed by performing urodynamic studies (dual-channel subtraction cystometry, erect stress test) in the outpatient urogynaecology clinic. Postoperatively, patients were reviewed at 1 month and then at 6 months followed by annual reviews subsequently. All women were reassessed at the 6-month follow-up visit with a filling and voiding cystometry to detect recurrent genuine stress incontinence and detrusor instability. Any woman complaining of stress urinary incontinence after that was reassessed with urodynamic studies as mentioned above. The majority of women (67.7%, 21 women) had the TVT tape located in the middle one-third of the urethra; 9.7% (3 women) and 22.6% (7 women) of women had the TVT tape situated in the proximal and distal one-third of the urethra, respectively. Despite this, all 31 women remained continent at their postoperative follow-up visits. The midurethral position of the TVT tape may not be essential in restoring continence. The TVT tape once inserted may not always rest in the midurethral position as described.

[Pudendal nerve block: local anaesthesia for insertion of suburethral tape: preliminary study of 9 cases]
Darcq C, Ayadi M, Dissait V, Piech JJ, Anton-Bousquet MC, Mansoor A
Prog Urol 2005 Feb;15(1):49-52; discussion 52.

PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to evaluate the safety of local anaesthesia by pudendal nerve block (PNB) for insertion of TVT or TOT suburethral tape for the treatment of female urinary incontinence. MATERIAL AND METHOD: PNB is performed by bilateral injection between the anus and ischium. The pudendal nerve, detected by electrostimulation, is anaesthetised by a solution of Naropeine and Carbocaine. Anaesthesia is systematically completed by abdominogenital and genitofemoral nerve blocks and by deep infiltration in the vagina. Perioperative and postoperative pain was assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS). RESULTS: Nine patients were treated by suburethral tape under PNB between November 2002 and January 2003. The mean age was 65.5 years (range: 46 to 87 years). TVT was used in 6 cases and TOT was used in 3 cases. PNB was well tolerated by the patient in 66% of cases. Eight patients (88%) did not experience any pain during the operation. The majority of patients (88%) were very satisfied with the anaesthesia. One patient experienced residual pain for 3 weeks. The technique is easy to perform by the anaesthetist and did not modify the surgical technique. This technique is relatively inexpensive. CONCLUSION: This preliminary study on a limited number of cases shows that PNB appears to be a good alternative to the usual anaesthesia techniques for insertion of suburethral tape.

[Quality of life assessment after TVT (tension-free vaginal tape) based on 3 different questionnaires]
Ducarme G, Ceccaldi PF, Staerman F
Prog Urol 2005 Feb;15(1):45-8.

OBJECTIVE: To prospectively evaluate the effects of TVT on the quality of life of patients with urinary incontinence by using 3 different questionnaires. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty one patients with a mean age of 57.1 years (range: 34 to 82) were treated by TVT for urinary incontinence combined with laparoscopic sacral colpopexy for associated cystocele in 12 cases. Fifty of these patients suffered from stress urinary incontinence and one presented mixed urinary incontinence. These patients completed 2 quality of life questionnaires and a urinary symptom score: Ditrovie and Contilife scale and the MHU scale for measurement of urinary handicap before and 3 months after TVT. Statistical analysis was based on Student's test. RESULTS: The mean scores obtained with the MHU scale were 6.74 (range: 2-16) preoperatively and 1.4 (range: 0-7) postoperatively. The mean score obtained with the Ditrovie scale was 3.1 (range: 2-4) preoperatively and 1.32 (range: 1-3) postoperatively. The mean score obtained with the Contilife scale was 82.1 (range: 51-119) preoperatively and 38.8 (range: 30-15) postoperatively. The difference was statistically significant (p<0.05) for the MHU and Contilife scales, but not for the Ditrovie scale. CONCLUSION: TVT allows a marked improvement of the quality of life of patients with urinary incontinence. The MHU and Contilife questionnaires can be used to objectively quantify the improvement of quality of life after TVT and, due to their marked and reproducible variation, they can also be used to assess the degree of improvement and the stability of the results over time.

Use of atresic vagina as a urethra to repair iatrogenic incontinence, secondary to a complete longitudinal urethral incision.
Albayrak S, Goktas C, Canguven O
Int J Urol 2005 Mar;12(3):325-7.

Vaginal atresia is a rare congenital anomaly. Patients with this pathology commonly present with amenorrhea, or an inability to have sexual intercourse. A dorsal urethral wall incision was performed in a woman who complained of difficulty with coitus. Her gynecologist intended to expand the vagina, thinking the diagnosis was a vaginal septum. We report a repair technique for total urinary incontinence following a longitudinal complete urethral incision, which also involved the bladder neck. The vaginal reconstruction consisted of an ileal segment, whereas the urinary incontinence was corrected using a rectus fascial sling. To our knowledge, this is the first case of this kind reported in the literature.

Tension-free vaginal tape: avoiding failure.
Al-Singary W, Arya M, Patel HR
Int J Clin Pract 2005 May;59(5):522-5.

A prospective, single-centre study to assess the outcome of incontinence surgery in the first 120 consecutive patients who had tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) by a single surgeon. All patients were initially seen at 3 months postsurgery, with a cough provocation test, measurement of residual urine volume and a satisfaction survey. At a mean of 26 months (6-42 months) after surgery, a validated telephone interview was performed. The operation was performed in accordance with the original technique described by Ulmsten et al. [Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 1996; 7: 81-5]. A total of 87 of 120 patients completed the study with the others either not complying or having died. Sixty-three (72.4%) patients were completely dry on cough provocation test. Of these, four (4.5%) had a slow stream and 10 (11.4%) suffered persistent urgency. The remaining 24 patients had varying degrees of leakage (operative failure). Sixteen (18.3%) patients subjectively considered the procedure to have failed at 3 months follow-up, either because leakage occurred once or more a day, and/or the persistence of the preoperative frequency/urgency syndrome. Of these 16 TVT failures, two had previous pelvic radiotherapy, two had double incontinence and eight had TVT for recurrent incontinence. Among the failures, 81.3% had mixed incontinence with predominant urge and nocturia three times per twenty four hours. Our study highlights the need for selection when performing TVT. We recommend that TVT be performed for those who have simple stress incontinence failing conservative measures (pelvic floor exercises and physiotherapy), with no history of incontinence surgery, pelvic radiotherapy, faecal or mixed incontinence.

Suprapubic-vaginocutaneous fistula 18 years after a bladder-neck suspension.
Giles DL, Davila GW
Obstet Gynecol 2005 May;105(5):1193-5.

BACKGROUND: Several complications are associated with healing after pelvic reconstructive surgery for stress urinary incontinence. These include infection, hemorrhage, erosion, and fistula formation. CASE: A 67-year-old woman presented with simultaneously draining vaginal and suprapubic sinuses. Examination revealed a vagino-abdominal fistula. Surgical excision found an abscess around synthetic material from a previous bladder-neck suspension. CONCLUSION: Unusual fistulation can occur remotely from anti-incontinence surgery, especially when graft materials are used.

Analysis of the success rates of Burch colposuspension in relation to Valsalva leak-point pressure.
Bai SW, Park JH, Kim SK, Park KH
J Reprod Med 2005 Mar;50(3):189-92.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the success rates of Burch colposuspension in relation to a Valsalva leak-point pressure (VLPP) cutoff level of 60 cm H2O and to examine other predictive factors for intrinsic sphincter deficiency, such as maximal urethral closure pressure (MUCP) and functional urethral length (FUL), in an attempt to define the urodynamic contraindications to Burch colposuspension. STUDY DESIGN: From March 1999 to February 2001, among patients who had undergone Burch colposuspension after being diagnosed as having stress urinary incontinence at the Yonsei University Medical Center Urogynecology Clinic, 79 patients eligible for continuous postoperative follow-up were enrolled in the study. Patients with past histories of hysterectomy and/or incontinence surgery were excluded from the study, and all patients included in the study had pelvic organ prolapse stage II or less. Urodynamic studies were performed as a preoperative evaluation, and recurrence of stress urinary incontinence after surgery was diagnosed through thorough history and meticulous urodynamic evaluations. RESULTS: The mean age was 57.66 +/- 9.99 years, mean parity was 3.71 +/- 4.38, menopausal rate and mean age at menopause were 81.0% (64 of 79) and 50.31 +/- 4.60 years, respectively, and the proportion of patients receiving hormone replacement therapy was 10.1% (8 of 79). The success rates in 2 groups, VLPP > or = 60 cm H2O (n=55) and < 60 cm H2O (n=24) were 94.55% and 91.67%, respectively, demonstrating no statistical significance (p > 0.05). The MUCP and FUL values were within normal ranges in both groups (MUCP, 66.98 +/- 24.04 versus 66.23 +/- 22.89 cm H2O, p>0.05; and FUL, 36.33 +/- 7.31 versus 38.71 +/- 8.54 mm, p > 0.05), without a significant difference. The Pearson correlation coefficients for VLPP versus MUCP and VLPP versus FUL were 0.50 (p < 0.001) and 0.57 (p < 0.001), respectively, demonstrating a significant positive correlation. CONCLUSION: A VLPP level < 60 cm H2O does not represent an absolute contraindication to Burch colposuspension, provided that other parameters, such as MUCP and FUL, are within acceptable ranges. To select appropriate candidates for Burch colposuspension, a comprehensive evaluation of urodynamic parameters is mandatory.

Tension-free vaginal tape exposure presenting as a recurrent sterile paraurethral abscess.
Tate SB, Franco AV, Fynes MM
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2005 Apr 22;.

We report a case of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) exposure presenting as a recurrent sterile paraurethral abscess at 25 months and 40 months following successful continence surgery and describe the management of this problem.

Complications associated with the tension-free vaginal tape procedure: the Korean experience.
Paick JS, Ku JH, Shin JW, Oh SJ, Kim SW
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2005 May-Jun;16(3):215-9. Epub 2004 Oct 26.

The object was to assess the incidence of complications in patients who had undergone the tension-free vaginal tape procedure and their management. A total of 274 women 28-80 years old (mean: 55.1) with a minimum follow-up of 6 months were included in the study. Follow-up evaluation included questionnaire assessment, physical examination with a stress test, uroflowmetry and postvoid residual urine measurement. Bladder perforations were noted in 13 (4.7%). Thirty-eight patients (13.9%) had postvoid residual urine volume >100 ml twice consecutively or failed to void. Twenty-three women had resolution of their voiding dysfunction with intermittent catheterization. Fourteen patients underwent urethral dilatation and four subsequently underwent a release and/or cutting of the tape. Fifty-seven patients (20.8%) had other voiding problems, but a normal voiding pattern was achieved spontaneously in 34. Fourteen women have shown resolution of their voiding symptoms after urethral dilatation. The present study demonstrates that the tension-free vaginal tape procedure is a safe technique for the treatment of female urinary incontinence. In addition, our findings suggest that there may be a role for urethral dilatation in the management of voiding difficulty associated with the procedure.

Development of vesical calculi following tension-free vaginal tape procedure.
Irer B, Aslan G, Cimen S, Bozkurt O, Celebi I
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2005 May-Jun;16(3):245-6. Epub 2004 Oct 19.

We present a case of a bladder stone that had formed around the intravesical portion of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) material following unnoticed bladder perforation during the procedure. Endoscopic lithotripsy of the bladder calculi was performed and the TVT sling material was removed by an endoscopic approach. High clinical suspicion of bladder complications is necessary when evaluating patients presenting with urinary symptoms after a TVT procedure.

The impact of stress urinary incontinence on sexual activity in women.
Barber MD, Dowsett SA, Mullen KJ, Viktrup L
Cleve Clin J Med 2005 Mar;72(3):225-32.

In women, stress urinary incontinence is a common problem that may lead to sexual dysfunction. We review the epidemiological data, the pathophysiology, and the risk factors for these two "closet" disorders, how they are related, how we can get patients to talk about them, and how the treatment of stress urinary incontinence may affect sexual dysfunction.

Success of repeat detrusor injections of botulinum a toxin in patients with severe neurogenic detrusor overactivity and incontinence.
Grosse J, Kramer G, Stohrer M
Eur Urol 2005 May;47(5):653-9. Epub 2005 Jan 15.

OBJECTIVES: Detrusor injections with botulinum toxin type A are an effective treatment for neurogenic detrusor overactivity, lasting for 9-12 months. When the patients develop botulinum resistance, subsequent injections might be less effective. Repeat injections in patients with severe neurogenic detrusor overactivity and incontinence were studied. METHODS: Patients received Botox (300 UI) or Dysport (750 UI) injections. Clinical variables: satisfaction, anticholinergics use, mean and maximum bladder capacity, continence volume. Cystometric parameters: compliance, cystometric capacity, reflex volume. Statistics: Anova, chi2-tests; t-tests and paired t-tests (p=0.05). RESULTS: Forty-three men and 23 women (mean age 38.3 years; mean duration of lesion 9.2 years) were included. The interval between subsequent injections (on average 9-11 months) did not change significantly (p=0.5594). The satisfaction was high and anticholinergics use decreased substantially (p=0.0000). Significant improvements were found in clinical parameters and in cystometric capacity, for compliance only at the second treatment. The incidence of reflex contractions was significantly reduced. Four patients had transient adverse events after Dysport. CONCLUSIONS: Repeat injections with botulinum toxin type A are as effective as the first one. The cause for repeat treatment is relapse of overactive bladder symptoms.

Urinary incontinence: a diverse condition.
McGuire EJ
J Urol 2005 May;173(5):1453-4.

Diagnosis, management and prognosis of vaginal erosion after transobturator suburethral tape procedure using a nonwoven thermally bonded polypropylene mesh.
Domingo S, Alama P, Ruiz N, Perales A, Pellicer A
J Urol 2005 May;173(5):1627-30.

PURPOSE: We studied the diagnosis, management and prognosis of vaginal mesh erosion using a thermally bonded nonwoven polypropylene mesh in a transobturator suburethral tape procedure for the surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 65 patients diagnosed with stress urinary incontinence underwent a transobturator suburethral tape procedure with a fusion welded, nonwoven, nonknitted polypropylene mesh, with or without a central silicone coated section, at our institution. All women were followed and if vaginal erosion was diagnosed, cystoscopy and vaginoscopy were performed, the mesh was partially or completely removed and, if necessary, posterior cough test and urodynamic study were performed. RESULTS: Of the 65 patients 9 (13.8%) were diagnosed with vaginal erosion at the vaginal incision during a relatively long postoperative period (mean 290 days). All presented with vaginal discharge and 1 had a severe complication (obturator abscess). Complete mesh removal was necessary in 8 patients and only 2 (22%) had recurrent stress urinary incontinence. CONCLUSIONS: A 13.8% rate of vaginal mesh erosion using a nonwoven thermally bonded polypropylene mesh was reported. This complication was probably due to the characteristics of the mesh and not to the transobturator approach. Complete removal of the tape is recommended and the continence status prognosis is good (78%).

A randomized controlled trial of duloxetine alone, pelvic floor muscle training alone, combined treatment and no active treatment in women with stress urinary incontinence.
Ghoniem GM, Van Leeuwen JS, Elser DM, Freeman RM, Zhao YD, Yalcin I, Bump RC
J Urol 2005 May;173(5):1647-53.

PURPOSE: We primarily compared the effectiveness of combined pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) and duloxetine with imitation PFMT and placebo for 12 weeks in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). In addition, we compared the effectiveness of combined treatment with single treatments, single treatments with each other and single treatments with no treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This blinded, doubly controlled, randomized trial enrolled 201 women 18 to 75 years old with SUI at 17 incontinence centers in the Netherlands, United Kingdom and United States. Women averaged 2 or more incontinence episodes daily and were randomized to 1 of 4 combinations of 80 mg duloxetine daily, placebo, PFMT and imitation PFMT, including combined treatment (in 52), no active treatment (in 47), PFMT only (in 50) and duloxetine only (in 52). The primary efficacy measure was incontinence episode frequency. Other efficacy variables included the number of continence pads used and the Incontinence Quality of Life questionnaire score. RESULTS: The intent to treat population incontinence episode frequency analysis demonstrated the superiority of duloxetine with or without PFMT compared with no treatment or with PFMT alone. However, pad and Incontinence Quality of Life analyses suggested greater improvement with combined treatment than single treatment. A completer population analysis demonstrated the efficacy of duloxetine with or without PFMT and suggested combined treatment was more effective than either treatment alone. CONCLUSIONS: The data support significant efficacy of combined PFMT and duloxetine in the treatment of women with SUI. We hypothesize that complementary modes of action of duloxetine and PFMT may result in an additive effect of combined treatment.

Functional magnetic stimulation for mixed urinary incontinence.
But I, Faganelj M, Sostaric A
J Urol 2005 May;173(5):1644-6.

PURPOSE: In this study we determined the efficacy of functional magnetic stimulation (FMS) compared to placebo for treating women with mixed urinary incontinence (MUI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 39 women with MUI were randomly assigned to the FMS group (23 patients) or to the placebo group (16 patients). FMS was applied continuously at 18.5 Hz day and night for 2 months. Conventional urodynamic studies were performed before and after stimulation. Outcome measures assessed were clinical (daytime frequency, nocturia, pad use, pad weight) and urodynamic variables (first sensation of bladder filling, maximum cystometric capacity, maximum urethral closure pressure), and patient subjective assessment (visual analogue scale). RESULTS: After 2 months of FMS significant decreases in voiding frequency (from 9.0 to 6.7, p = 0.0002), nocturia (from 2.6 to 1.4, p = 0.0007) and pad use (from 3.9 to 2.2, p = 0.007) were observed only in the FMS group. First sensation of bladder filling and maximum cystometric capacity increased significantly after stimulation compared with prestimulation levels only in the FMS group, p = 0.003 (from 118 to 174 ml) and p = 0.00004 (from 267 to 396 ml), respectively. A total of 18 women (78.3%) reported an improvement in symptoms after FMS with an average success rate of 41.9%. The success rate was significantly lower in the placebo group (p = 0.021) at 22.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Functional magnetic stimulation was useful and safe for treating women with MUI.

The overactive bladder-symptom composite score: a composite symptom score of toilet voids, urgency severity and urge urinary incontinence in patients with overactive bladder.
Zinner N, Harnett M, Sabounjian L, Sandage B Jr, Dmochowski R, Staskin D
J Urol 2005 May;173(5):1639-43.

PURPOSE: To our knowledge there is no index in urology that yields a single, quantifiable and clinically interpretable measure of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms, including urgency, 24-hour voiding frequency and urge urinary incontinence (UUI). Urgency is the most difficult of these symptoms to measure. The Indevus Urgency Severity Scale (Indevus Pharmaceuticals, Lexington, Massachusetts) was recently developed and validated to capture urgency severity per toilet void. The scale has been combined with 24-hour frequency and UUI episodes to create the OAB Symptom Composite Score (OAB-SCS). We present this composite score. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two multicenter trials were performed to determine the effects of trospium chloride given as 20 mg tablets vs placebo. A total of 1,157 patients, including 581 who received placebo and 576 who received trospium, were randomly assigned to treatment. Daily OAB-SCS totals were obtained for each patient for each day during the 7-day diary collection period for every visit. RESULTS: The average baseline OAB-SCS value was 36. The mean change from baseline in the trospium and placebo groups was 5 and 1 OAB-SCS points in patients with mild OAB, 10 and 5 in patients with moderate OAB, and 13 and 9 in patients with severe OAB, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The OAB-SCS discriminated between placebo and pharmacologically treated (trospium chloride) patients with OAB in this study. The OAB-SCS is an improvement over individual symptoms alone. It is easy to implement and interpret and it will prove to be a clinically relevant tool in clinical trials in which patient diary data are captured.

Long-term efficacy of a vaginal sling procedure in a rat model of stress urinary incontinence.
Hijaz A, Bena J, Daneshgari F
J Urol 2005 May;173(5):1817-9.

PURPOSE: We examined the long-term efficacy of a newly created vaginal sling procedure for the restoration of leak point pressure (LPP) in a rat model of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 20 female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups, namely normal control, SUI plus vaginal sling, SUI plus sham sling and SUI only. SUI was created in the latter 3 groups by bilateral pudendal nerve transection (PNT). In the sling procedure a 2 x 0.3 cm strip of polypropylene mesh was placed at the mid urethral level. Animals in the SUI plus sham sling group underwent vaginal dissection only. After 5 weeks LPP was measured 4 or 5 times in each rat and the mean was determined. The Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to evaluate whether levels of measurements differed across and between groups. RESULTS: Mean LPP +/- SD in control rats was 48.8 +/- 10.2 cm H2O. PNT decreased LPP to 23.5 +/- 7.4 cm H2O. Sling placement improved LPP at 5 weeks to 35.5 +/- 2.3 cm H2O, whereas LPP in the sham sling group was 29.1 +/- 4.9 cm H2O. LPP recovery in the sling group was significantly above levels for PNT (p = 0.037). LPP in the sling group did not differ statistically from that in the control group (p = 0.11). CONCLUSIONS: The newly created vaginal sling model restores the LPP in the rat model of SUI in the long term (5 weeks). This model could be used to address research questions related to the sling procedure.

Prolonged sacral neuromodulation testing using permanent leads: a more reliable patient selection method?
Kessler TM, Madersbacher H, Kiss G
Eur Urol 2005 May;47(5):660-5. Epub 2005 Jan 4.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of prolonged sacral neuromodulation testing using permanent leads comparing the usual evaluation period of 4 to 7 days to a prolonged evaluation period of a minimum of 14 days. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A consecutive series of 20 patients (16 females and 4 males) undergoing prolonged sacral neuromodulation testing using permanent leads between September 2000 and March 2004 were evaluated retrospectively. 10 suffered from urgency-frequency syndrome, 3 from urge incontinence and 7 from non-obstructive chronic urinary retention. Key bladder diary variables at baseline, after the usual and prolonged evaluation period and at the last follow-up were compared. RESULTS: The median age was 52 years (interquartile range (IQR) 38-59) and the median evaluation period 28 days (IQR 18-29). 16 of the 20 patients (80%) had successful prolonged sacral neuromodulation testing and underwent the implantation of the IPG that was placed in the anterior abdominal wall in 6 and in the upper buttock in 10 patients. The eligibility for IPG implantation was significantly (p=0.031) increased from 50% after the usual to 80% after the prolonged evaluation period. At a median follow-up of 22 months (IQR 12-34), sacral neuromodulation was successful in 14 (88%) of the 16 IPG implanted patients but failed in 2. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged sacral neuromodulation testing using permanent leads is more reliable for accurate patient selection than the usual evaluation period. Therefore, this method is strongly recommended and suggested to become the standard test procedure.

Is there a role for estrogen in the prevention and treatment of urinary incontinence?
Holroyd-Leduc JM, Straus SE
CMAJ 2005 Apr 12;172(8):1003-4.

Surgical management of stress urinary incontinence: a questionnaire based survey.
Jha S, Arunkalaivanan AS, Davis J
Eur Urol 2005 May;47(5):648-52. Epub 2005 Jan 8.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the trends in the surgical management of urinary stress incontinence amongst members of the International Urogynaecology Association (IUGA). DESIGN: Postal Questionnaire Survey. METHODS: 530 members of the International Urogynaecology association were sent a postal questionnaire regarding their practice in the surgical management of urinary stress incontinence. We also collected data on the demographic profile of members and the preferred primary and secondary continence procedures. OUTCOME: Consensus in the surgical management of urinary stress incontinence amongst members of the IUGA. RESULTS: Five hundred and thirty questionnaires were sent to IUGA members worldwide. Two hundred and seventeen questionnaires were received of which fifteen were from physiotherapists, so were excluded from our analysis. The overall response rate was 41%, and the useable response rate was 38%. Of the total results analysed (two hundred and two), one hundred and twelve (54%) were from teaching hospital, sixty-two (31%) were from district general hospitals and twenty-eight (14%) were from members in private practice. The preferred primary continence procedure was Tension Free Vaginal Tape (TVT) in one hundred and thirty four (68%) respondents. The preferred secondary continence procedure was colposuspension or Trans obturator tape in twenty-six respondents each (13%). CONCLUSIONS: Almost all respondents (97.1%) were skilled at performing either TVT or colposuspension, which have been identified as the preferred methods of surgical management by the NICE (National Institute of Clinical Excellence, UK). Although colposuspension has been identified as the gold standard surgical procedure in the management of stress incontinence, 16% of respondents were not performing colposuspension. There appears to be little evidence base to the surgical techniques in the management of stress urinary continence.

Erosions and urinary retention following polypropylene synthetic sling: Australasian survey.
Hammad FT, Kennedy-Smith A, Robinson RG
Eur Urol 2005 May;47(5):641-6; discussion 646-7. Epub 2004 Dec 31.

INTRODUCTION: There are few published reports on the incidence and management of urethral and vaginal erosions following the use of polypropylene synthetic slings. Moreover, there is very little Australasian data on their use for management of female urinary incontinence or on their associated complications. METHODS: A 1-page survey was mailed to the Australian and New Zealand members of the Urological Society of Australasia (N=326). The survey included questions on the use of polypropylene synthetic sling and the incidence and management of post-operative vaginal and urethral erosions and urinary retention. RESULTS: 198 surveys were returned (response rate: 61%). Polypropylene synthetic sling procedure is practiced by 39% of the respondents with a total of 1459 cases (TVT: 993, SPARC: 466). The incidence of vaginal erosions, urethral erosions and urinary retention was 1.2%, 0.6% and 6.5%, respectively. Thirty five percent of vaginal erosions were asymptomatic and only identified on routine post-operative vaginal examination. One third of urethral erosions presented more than 1 year after surgery and 89% of these were symptomatic. Thirty four percent of patients with urinary retention required surgical intervention to correct the retention. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of urethral and vaginal erosions following polypropylene synthetic sling procedures is lower than that with other synthetic slings. However, a high index of suspicion and long-term follow-up are required to identify and manage these complications of this relatively new procedure.

Outcome following TVT sling procedure: a comparison of outcome recorded by surgeons to that reported by their patients at a London district general hospital.
Munir N, Bunce C, Gelister J, Briggs T
Eur Urol 2005 May;47(5):635-40; discussion 640. Epub 2005 Jan 27.

OBJECTIVE: Retrospective study to assess patient satisfaction rates after TVT sling procedure for stress urinary incontinence (SUI), and comparison of these results to the post-operative progress documented by the surgeons in the clinical notes. METHODS: All TVT sling cases at our institution during February 1999 to December 2002 were included. Data was collected from clinical notes on post-operative outcome as recorded by the surgeons, and a patient satisfaction questionnaire was used to assess patients' perception of their progress. RESULTS: The response rate to the patient satisfaction questionnaire was 72%. Overall 94% of the patients were satisfied with the procedure. However, they reported cure rates of only 44%. This is comparable to the 46% cure rates documented by the surgeons. CONCLUSION: The surgeons' and the patients' perceptions regarding outcome and change in symptoms after TVT sling for SUI at our hospital, correlate well. Hence, the documentation in the clinical notes by the surgeons can be relied upon as an accurate representation of post-operative patient progress. Despite the relatively low cure rates (44-46%) for SUI with TVT sling procedure, the patient satisfaction rates with the outcome are high (94%), reiterating that there is a poor correlation between quality of life impairment and the concept of cure.

Technique for removal of symptomatic bone anchors placed during stress incontinence surgery.
Stoffel JT, Oh SJ, McGuire EJ
Urology 2005 Mar;65(3):583-6.

INTRODUCTION: To present an uncomplicated, reliable technique for bone anchor removal in patients with anchor-related infections or chronic pain. TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS: We removed 17 anchors from 9 patients between 1999 and 2004. The surgical technique used fluoroscopy for localization of the anchors and an orthopedic broken screw removal instrument for resection of the anchor and surrounding bone. Nine patients with bone anchors had been symptomatic with chronic pain and/or wound drainage for a mean of 23.7 months before surgery. After removal, 10 anchors grew positive bacterial cultures. The most common organism was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. During a mean follow-up period of 6.8 months after hardware removal, 8 of the 9 patients had symptomatic improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Fluoroscopic localization and en bloc resection with a broken screw removal instrument is an effective method of removing symptomatic bone anchors.

Tolterodine for the treatment of daytime incontinence in children.
Greenfield SP
J Urol 2005 Apr;173(4):1064.

Transobturator vaginal tape inside out for the surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: anatomical considerations.
Bonnet P, Waltregny D, Reul O, de Leval J
J Urol 2005 Apr;173(4):1223-8.

PURPOSE: We have recently described a novel surgical technique for female stress urinary incontinence, that is the transobturator vaginal tape inside out, which uses specific instruments for the passage of a synthetic tape from beneath the urethra toward the thigh folds. Herein we report the results of cadaver dissection performed to determine the anatomical trajectory of the tape and its relationships with neighboring neurovascular structures and organs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Insertion of the transobturator vaginal tape inside out tape was performed by different surgeons in 12 freshly frozen female cadavers according to the standard procedure. The thigh, obturator, perineal and pelvic regions were dissected and tape trajectory was recorded. An additional cadaver was dissected without prior tape placement. RESULTS: The tape was inserted according to a certain consistent path, that is penetration from the suburethral space into a strictly perineal region limited medial and cranial by the levator ani muscle, caudal by the perineal membrane and lateral by the obturator internus muscle. This region corresponded to the most anterior recess of the ischiorectal fossa. The tape then perforated the obturator membrane and muscles, and exited through the skin after traversing adductor muscles and subcutaneous tissue. The tape was coursed away from 1) the dorsal nerve to the clitoris located more superficially below the perineal membrane, 2) the obturator nerve and vessels, and 3) the saphenous and femoral vessels. CONCLUSIONS: These findings strongly suggest that our transobturator technique is highly accurate, reproducible and safe, and it does not require perioperative cystoscopy.

Association between valsalva and cough leak point pressures and pelvic organ prolapse quantification in women with stress incontinence.
Latini JM, Zimmerman MB, Kreder KJ Jr
J Urol 2005 Apr;173(4):1219-22.

PURPOSE: Women with urodynamically documented stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and urethral hypermobility may have a higher pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POP-Q) stage according to anterior POP-Q measurements. In this study we determined if POP-Q system anterior components representing the urethrovesical junction (anterior wall point Aa/Ba) and/or POP-Q stage has a relationship with leak point pressure testing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of the 1,511 women who underwent video fluoro-urodynamics during 1997 to 2003 at our institution 88 with only evidence of SUI with negative Valsalva leak point pressure and positive cough leak point pressure (CLPP) were selected. RESULTS: Average patient age was 58.6 years (range 32 to 89). Of the 88 women 82 had complete POP-Q examinations available, which revealed stages 0 to III in 21 (25.61%), 20 (24.39%), 40 (48.78%) and 1 (1.22%), respectively. The association between POP-Q stage/components and positive CLPP showed no significant difference in mean positive CLPP among POP-Q stages (p = 0.178) or components (p = 0.42 to 0.97). The test for linear trend was not significant (p = 0.636) for POP-Q stages/components (p = 0.40 to 0.93). No significant difference in volume at which positive CLPP occurred was observed among POP-Q stages (p = 0.283) or components (p = 0.13 to 0.75). The proportion of patients with leakage at 200 cc did not differ significantly among POP-Q stages (p = 0.119) or components (p = 0.15 to 0.60). CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of women with urodynamic evidence of SUI with negative Valsalva leak point pressure and positive CLPP did not show any significant association with components of the POP-Q system or with POP-Q stages. Findings support that POP-Q measurements should not be interpreted as indicators of urethral hypermobility when evaluating women with SUI.

Increased warning time with darifenacin: a new concept in the management of urinary urgency.
Cardozo L, Dixon A
J Urol 2005 Apr;173(4):1214-8.

PURPOSE: We assessed the effect of darifenacin, an M3 selective receptor antagonist, on the warning time associated with urinary urgency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this multicenter, double-blind study subjects with urinary urgency for 6 months or greater and episodes of urgency 4 times or greater daily were randomized to darifenacin controlled release tablets (30 mg once daily) or placebo. Warning time was defined as the time from the first sensation of urgency to voluntary micturition or incontinence. Data were collected using electronic event recorders during 6-hour clinic visits or 3 urge-void cycles, if shorter, at baseline and at treatment end. RESULTS: A total of 72 subjects entered the study and 67 were included in the primary efficacy analysis (darifenacin in 32 and placebo in 35). Darifenacin treatment resulted in a significant increase in mean warning time with a median increase of 4.3 minutes compared with placebo (p = 0.003). Overall 47% of darifenacin treated subjects compared with 20% receiving placebo achieved a 30% increase or greater in mean warning time (OR 5.6, p = 0.009). Median and minimum warning times were also significantly increased following darifenacin treatment vs placebo (p = 0.004 and 0.017, respectively). The median difference in minimum warning time was 1.9 minutes in favor of darifenacin vs placebo. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first study to evaluate change in warning time, which is potentially important to individuals with symptoms associated with overactive bladder. Darifenacin increases mean, median and minimum warning time compared with placebo, allowing subjects more time to reach a toilet and potentially avoiding the embarrassing experience of incontinence.

Outcomes following revisions and secondary implantation of the artificial urinary sphincter.
Raj GV, Peterson AC, Toh KL, Webster GD
J Urol 2005 Apr;173(4):1242-5.

PURPOSE: Durable success with the artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) is common but device revision and replacement are often needed for various reasons. We examined indications and outcomes following these secondary procedures with comparisons to outcomes after primary procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical records of all patients undergoing primary and secondary bulbar urethral AUS implantation and revision from January 1990 to September 2002 were reviewed for various demographic and surgical variables. Female patients and males with bladder neck cuffs were excluded from study. RESULTS: Of 554 men undergoing AUS implantation or revision 119 (21.4%) underwent a total of 159 secondary procedures. Reasons for revision were mechanical failure in 31 cases (25.2%) and nonmechanical failure in 88 (73.9%). The latter included recurrent incontinence due to urethral atrophy in 63 cases (52.9%) and erosion in 21 (17.6%). Total device replacement was performed in 75 cases (47.2%). Of 119 patients undergoing secondary implantation 91 (76.5%) needed no additional surgical intervention, while 28 (23.5%) required a total of 40 surgical revisions for new mechanical (15 or 37.5%) and nonmechanical (25 or 62.5%) problems. Five-year durability outcomes for primary and secondary AUS implantation were comparable at 80% and 88%, respectively. Similarly excellent continence outcomes (0 to 1 pad daily) were noted in 90% and 82% of patients undergoing primary and secondary AUS implantation, respectively. Secondary and tertiary AUS revisions resulted in the restoration of baseline continence in 106 cases (89%). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that outcomes for secondary AUS reimplantation are comparable to those of primary AUS implantation and salvage of a good outcome is always probable, even following multiple prior revisions and cuff erosion.

Simultaneous augmentation cystoplasty is associated with earlier rather than increased artificial urinary sphincter infection.
Catto JW, Natarajan V, Tophill PR
J Urol 2005 Apr;173(4):1237-41.

PURPOSE: While artificial urinary sphincter infection or erosion occurs in 20% of implantations, the risk factors are poorly understood. One of the most contentious factors reported to increase prosthesis infection is simultaneous sphincter implantation and augmentation cystoplasty. In contrast to some reports, to date our results have not shown an increased infective risk with the simultaneous procedure. We reviewed the long-term infective complications of 195 sphincters to investigate for predisposing infective factors and review the role of augmentation cystoplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective case note review of 144 patients with a median followup of 112 months. Augmentation cystoplasty performed in 86 patients (60%) and was simultaneous in 56. All patients were reviewed within the last year or followed until death or sphincter failure. Patient, surgical and treatment factors were statistically analyzed for associations with prosthesis infection. RESULTS: A total of 108 sphincters failed from infection (25%), tissue atrophy (5%) or mechanical reasons (25%). The overall infective failure rate was similar in patients who underwent simultaneous augmentation (30%) compared with the other patients (23%), although there was a statistically significant difference within the first 3 postoperative years (log rank p = 0.009). While no other variables were significantly associated with sphincter infection, intermittent self-catheterization did not increase sphincter infection and females appeared to have more prosthesis infections. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that, while simultaneous augmentation cystoplasty and artificial urinary sphincter implantation lead to an initial increase in prosthesis infection, this difference disappears after 3 years.

Incidence of pubic osteomyelitis after bladder neck suspension using bone anchors.
Wein AJ
J Urol 2005 Apr;173(4):1265.

TVT and Sparc Suburethral Slings: A Case-Control Series.
Wein AJ
J Urol 2005 Apr;173(4):1265-6.

Deafferentation of the Urinary Bladder and Implantation of a Sacral Anterior Root Stimulator (SARS) for Treatment of the Neurogenic Bladder in Paraplegic Patients.
Wein AJ
J Urol 2005 Apr;173(4):1264-5.

Bladder training for urinary incontinence in adults.
Wein AJ
J Urol 2005 Apr;173(4):1263-4.

An open-label pilot study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis.
Wein AJ
J Urol 2005 Apr;173(4):1262.

VTimed Voiding for the Management of Urinary Incontinence in Adults.
Ostaszkiewicz J, Johnston L, Roe B
J Urol 2005 Apr;173(4):1262-3.

Self-reported urinary incontinence in noninstitutionalized long-term stroke survivors: A population-based study.
Jorgensen L, Engstad T, Jacobsen BK
Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005 Mar;86(3):416-20.

OBJECTIVES: To compare the prevalence of self-reported incontinence among noninstitutionalized long-term stroke survivors with population controls without stroke and to identify risk factors associated with urinary incontinence in the stroke survivors. DESIGN: Community-based, cross-sectional study. SETTING: Municipality of Tronso. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 213 noninstitutionalized stroke survivors (mean time poststroke, 9y) and 242 control subjects. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Self-reported presence of urinary incontinence. RESULTS: Urinary incontinence was present in 17% of the stroke survivors and in 7% of the control subjects (odds ratio [OR]=2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-5.2) and more prevalent among the stroke survivors than among the control subjects until 10 years poststroke. In the stroke survivors, urinary incontinence was associated with signs of depression (OR=3.0; 95% CI, 1.3-7.1) and tended to be associated with motor function of the leg (OR=3.1; 95% CI, 0.9-10.4) and cognitive function (OR=2.8; 95% CI, 0.9-8.6). Urinary incontinence was strongly related to the number of these risk factors present ( P trend, <.001; OR=7.2; 95% CI, 2.1-24.6) in subjects having 2 or more of the risk factors, compared with subjects with none of these risk factors). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of urinary incontinence is high among long-term stroke survivors, especially in subjects in whom paresis, depressive symptoms, and impaired cognition cluster.

Urologic diseases in America project: urinary incontinence in women-national trends in hospitalizations, office visits, treatment and economic impact.
Thom DH, Nygaard IE, Calhoun EA
J Urol 2005 Apr;173(4):1295-301.

PURPOSE: We describe temporal trends in hospitalizations, outpatient visits and the treatment of female urinary incontinence (UI), and estimated the costs of incontinence using national databases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The analytic methods used to generate these results have been described previously. RESULTS: The rate of hospitalization with a primary diagnosis of UI decreased from 51/100,000 women in 1994 to 44/100,000 in 2000 and mean length of stay decreased from 3.1 days to 2.1. In contrast, outpatient visits for UI more than doubled during the same period from 845/100,000 women to 1,845/100,000. Rates of inpatient surgical treatment for UI decreased slightly from 1994 to 2000, while ambulatory surgical center visit rates for Medicare beneficiaries 65 years or older more than doubled from 60/100,000 in 1992 to 142/100,000 in 1998. Medical expenditures for UI increased substantially during the 1990s, almost doubling from 128.1 million dollars in 1992 to 234.4 million dollars in 1998 for Medicare beneficiaries 65 years or older. This increase was due almost entirely to increased outpatient costs, which increased from 25.4 million dollars or 9.1% of total costs in 1992 to 329 million dollars or 27.3% of total costs in 2000 in this group. CONCLUSIONS: While existing national databases generally capture only the minority of incontinent women with UI who seek and receive care for UI, they are useful for documenting treads in service use and surgical treatments, and estimating economic impact. This data can be helpful when formulating public policy and designing observational and clinical studies.

Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Suprapubic Arch Sling (SPARC) and Tension-Free Vaginal Tape (TVT): One-Year Results.
Andonian S, Chen T, St-Denis B, Corcos J
Eur Urol 2005 Apr;47(4):537-41. Epub 2005 Jan 13.

PURPOSE: Suprapubic Arch sling (SPARC) has been initially presented as being comparable to Tension-free Vaginal Tape (TVT) without published trials. To test the safety and efficacy of this new product, we designed a prospective, randomized clinical trial with a minimum follow-up of 1 year. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 84 women presenting with Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI) were randomly assigned to SPARC or TVT as a minimally invasive mid-urethral sling procedure. All patients were re-evaluated at 1, 6, and 12 months. Symptom assessment, Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ), physical examination, Uro-Dynamic Studies (UDS) and 1-hour pad test were repeated at 1-year follow-up. RESULTS: 41 patients were randomized to SPARC and 43 to TVT. The two groups had similar baseline characteristics. Both procedures resulted in similar peri-operative complications: bladder perforation (24% vs. 23%), median estimated blood loss (0-50ml), median hospital stay (1-night), post-operative analgesia, and persistent urinary retention necessitating tape resection (2 patients in each group). There were three other complications in the SPARC group: tape erosion, infected pelvic hematoma, and urinary tract infection. At 12 months, there was no statistically significant difference between SPARC and TVT, in terms of objective cure rates as determined by 1-hour pad test of less than two grams (83% vs. 95%; p</=0.1; 12% difference, 95% CI: 25.4% to -1.4%) and subjective cure rates as determined by IIQ scores (49.9+/-25.6 vs. 45.3+/-18.4; p=0.46). CONCLUSIONS: At 1-year follow-up, there is no statistically significant difference between SPARC and TVT. Longer follow-up is needed to confirm these results.

Urinary incontinence in US women: a population-based study.
Melville JL, Katon W, Delaney K, Newton K
Arch Intern Med 2005 Mar 14;165(5):537-42.

BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common disorder that is increasingly important as our population ages. Less is known about UI in younger women, and few large surveys have been able to determine risk factors by linking their data to patients' medical findings. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, age-stratified postal survey of 6000 women aged between 30 and 90 years who were enrolled in a large health maintenance organization in Washington State. RESULTS: The response rate was 64% (n = 3536) after exclusion criteria were applied. The population-based prevalence of UI was 45%. Prevalence increased with age, from 28% for 30- to 39-year-old women to 55% for 80- to 90-year-old women. Eighteen percent of respondents reported severe UI. The prevalence of severe UI also increased notably with age, from 8% for 30- to 39-year-old women to 33% for 80- to 90-year-old women. Older age, higher body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters), greater medical comorbidity, current major depression, a history of hysterectomy, and parity increased the odds of having UI. Not being white and having had only cesarean deliveries decreased the odds of having UI. Major depression (odds ratio, 2.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.65-3.72) and obesity, defined as having a BMI of 30 or greater (odds ratio, 2.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.99-2.87), had the strongest association with UI. Among women with UI, age, BMI, medical comorbidity, current major depression, diabetes, a history of hysterectomy, and having had only cesarean deliveries were significantly associated with severe UI. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary incontinence is highly prevalent in women across their adult life span, and its severity increases linearly with age. Age, BMI, race, medical comorbidity, current major depression, a history of hysterectomy, parity, and having only had cesarean deliveries are each independent factors significantly associated with the likelihood of having UI.

Tension-free vaginal tape in the elderly: is it a safe procedure?
Gordon D, Gold R, Pauzner D, Lessing JB, Groutz A
Urology 2005 Mar;65(3):479-82.

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the safety and efficacy of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) surgery in elderly versus younger women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). METHODS: A total of 157 consecutive elderly women, aged 70 years and older, and 303 younger women (mean age, 74.8 and 57.2 years, respectively) who underwent TVT for urodynamically-confirmed SUI were prospectively enrolled. Concomitant genitourinary prolapse repair was performed in 84% of the elderly and 67% of the younger women. The main outcome measures were perioperative morbidity, postoperative SUI, persistent or de novo urge incontinence, and voiding dysfunction. RESULTS: The incidence of TVT-related morbidity was similar in both groups, except for significantly fewer cases of bladder perforation among elderly women (1.3% versus 4.9%, P <0.05). However, some age-related morbidity was noted among the elderly women: 2 cases of pulmonary embolism, 2 cases of cardiac arrhythmia, 1 case of severe pneumonia, and 1 case of deep vein thrombosis. The outcome analysis was restricted to 123 elderly and 208 younger women with follow-up of at least 12 months (mean, 30 +/- 12 months; range, 12 to 67 months). The incidence of persistent postoperative SUI and persistent urge incontinence was similar in both age groups. However, de novo urge incontinence was significantly more common among elderly women (18% versus 4%, P <0.05). Two elderly and three younger women had postoperative pressure-flow studies suggestive of bladder outlet obstruction. CONCLUSIONS: Tension-free vaginal tape surgery in elderly women is associated with good outcome results; however, the risk of postoperative de novo urge incontinence, as well as age-related morbidity, is increased.

Preliminary results of the effect of extracorporeal magnetic stimulation on urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy: a pilot study.
Yokoyama T, Inoue M, Fujita O, Nozaki K, Nose H, Kumon H
Urol Int 2005;74(3):224-8.

Introduction: Radical prostatectomy is a common procedure for the treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer. However, urinary incontinence is a significant potential source of morbidity following surgery. Extracorporeal magnetic stimulation (ExMS) is a new technology used for pelvic muscle strengthening in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. We investigated the clinical effects of ExMS on urinary incontinence after retropubic radical prostatectomy. Patients and Methods: Ten patients who had suffered from urinary incontinence for more than 12 months following radical prostatectomy were enrolled in this study. The Neocontrol system was used. Treatment sessions were for 20 min, twice a week for 2 months. The frequency of the pulse field was 10 Hz for 10 min, followed by a second treatment at 50 Hz for 10 min. Objective and subjective measures included voiding diaries, 1-hour pad weight testing, and a quality of life survey at 1, 2, 3, and 6 months after starting the treatment. Urodynamic studies were performed before and after treatment. Results: Three patients became dry (30%), 3 patients improved (30%), and 4 patients showed stationary symptoms (40%). In the 1-hour pad weight testing, the mean pad weight decreased from 25 to 10.3 g, and the quality of life scores had improved from 70.5 to 84.9 2 months after treatment. The frequency of leak episodes per day was reduced from 5.0 times before to 1.9 times after treatment. In the urodynamic study, mean maximum cystometric capacity and Valsalva leak point pressure increased from 197 +/- 53.2 to 309 +/- 85.3 ml and from 67.3 +/- 22.6 to 97.1 +/- 22.7 cm H(2)O after treatment, respectively (p < 0.05). 3 of 6 patients who showed improvement returned to the baseline values within 12 months after treatment and requested maintenance ExMS therapy. No side effects were observed. Conclusions: ExMS therapy offered a new option for urinary incontinence treatment after radical prostatectomy. Further studies are required to determine how long the benefits of treatment last and whether maintenance therapy is necessary. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Long-term surgical results of pubovaginal sling procedure using polypropylene mesh in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence.
Kuo HC
Urol Int 2005;74(2):147-52.

INTRODUCTION: Surgery for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women might cure incontinence symptom but develop new problems. This study assessed the long-term outcome of pubovaginal sling procedure using polypropylene mesh in patients with SUI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 108 patients with various types of SUI received pubovaginal sling procedure using polypropylene mesh. A surgical technique that did not create bladder outlet obstruction after operation was used in all the patients. Video urodynamic study was performed at baseline, 2 weeks and 3 months after operation. The long-term surgical results and patients' satisfaction were assessed. RESULTS: The age of patients ranged from 33 to 94 years (mean 62.6 +/- 12.0 years). The follow-up period ranged from 24 to 72 months (median 46 months). Among the 108 patients, a successful result was noted in 92 (85.2%), including a continence rate of 65.7% and mild SUI in 19.4% of patients. Treatment failure was noted in 16 patients (14.8%), including 13 (12%) with urge incontinence and 3 (2.8%) with severe SUI that was cured by a second sling. There were 104 patients (96.3%) who could void volitionally with little residual urine, whereas 4 (3.7%) needed transvaginal urethrolysis. Urodynamic study revealed no significant changes in the mean values of parameters at 3 months after operation. However, 22 (20%) patients had an increase in voiding pressure by 50% at 3 months postoperatively. The reported satisfactory rate was 89.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Pubovaginal sling procedure using polypropylene mesh had a high success rate in all types of SUI. The continence rate was suboptimal, indicating that the absence of bladder outlet obstruction might result in inadequate urethral compression after pubovaginal sling procedure.

The tensile strength of Cooper's ligament suturing: comparison of abdominal and transvaginal techniques.
Goldberg RP, Koduri S, Sand PK, Kwon C, Culligan P
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2004 Nov-Dec;15(6):425-7; discussion 428. Epub 2004 Jun 23.

This study was designed to compare the strength and position of sutures anchored into Cooper's ligament utilizing a minimally invasive transvaginal suturing technique, versus the 'open' abdominal approach. In 12 fresh cadavers, Cooper's ligament was accessed via abdominal and vaginal incisions. After randomization, polytetrafluoroethylene (00) sutures were spaced along one ligament with the transvaginal device (n=36). Contralaterally, sutures were placed abdominally (n=36). Progressive load was applied until suture breakage or dislodgement, and tensile strength was measured using a digital tensiometer. Peak tension averaged 14.5 psi for abdominal and 12.96 psi for vaginal (p=0.28). Suture breakage rather than ligament 'pullout' was more likely for abdominal (95 vs. 56%, p=0.0001). Vaginal and abdominal sutures demonstrated nearly identical mean distances from mid-symphysis (4.62 vs. 4.24 cm, p=0.56). Peak tension was not correlated with suture location (r2=0.17, p=0.28). We conclude that transvaginal suturing, using the minimally invasive device, achieved similar tensile strength and position to the open technique. Transvaginal sutures were associated with greater likelihood of ligament 'pullout' before suture breakage under maximal load; however, the clinical implications of this finding are uncertain.

True occult bladder perforation during placement of tension-free vaginal tape.
Buchsbaum GM, Moll C, Duecy EE
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2004 Nov-Dec;15(6):432-3. Epub 2004 Oct 14.

Bladder perforation is one of the most common complications of the trans-vaginal tape (TVT) procedure, and is generally identified on routine intra-operative cystoscopy. We present a case of occult bladder perforation occurring during the TVT procedure that could not be identified by cystoscopy. A 57-year-old woman underwent TVT placement for treatment of stress urinary incontinence. A bladder perforation, suspected because of clear fluid at one of the abdominal incision sites, could not be identified with cystoscopy, but was confirmed with bladder installation of sterile infant formula. The tape was removed and the bladder was drained for 48 h. The patient's recovery was uneventful and she subsequently underwent TVT placement without complication. Cystoscopy alone may be inadequate for identification of some bladder perforations during the TVT procedure. Awareness of alternative methods of identification is essential.

Which sling for which patient?
Palma PC
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2004 Nov-Dec;15(6):369-72. Epub 2004 Oct 7.

Overactive bladder: evaluation and management in primary care.
Rosenberg MT, Dmochowski RR
Cleve Clin J Med 2005 Feb;72(2):149-56.

Primary care physicians must initiate a discussion of overactive bladder and urinary incontinence with their patients who are at risk. A stepwise approach to evaluation and diagnosis and the use of systematic evaluation and treatment algorithms suitable to the primary care setting will improve identification and effective management of the incontinent patient.

[Compression of the bulbar urethra by transobturator suburethral tape: anatomical study]
Darcq C, Guy L, Mansoor A, Vanneuville G, Filaire M, Boiteux JP
Prog Urol 2004 Sep;14(4):507-11; discussion 511.

INTRODUCTION: The management of female stress urinary incontinence has been markedly improved by the suprapubic tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) and transobturator tape techniques. The objective of our study was to assess the feasibility of this type of technique in males based on cadavre dissection. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A 300 mm x 15 mm polypropylene tape was inserted via a transobturator approach on a cadavre stored in the refrigerator at 4 degrees C and on three cadavres stored in formalin. The technique was almost identical to that used in females. It requires a midline perineal incision in the raphe and two small lateral incisions. The deep transverse muscle of the perineum was opened with scissors. The needle was introduced via the lateral incisions and its progression was guided by a finger introduced into the perineal orifice. The cadavre was then sectioned sagittally to verify the course of the tape and its relations to adjacent structures. RESULTS: The operative technique did not raise any particular problems. Dissection revealed that the tape crossed the deep transverse muscle of the perineum and the levator ani muscle, before travelling towards the obturator foramen. The tape avoided the bladder, prostate, corpora cavernosa, and pudendal pedicle. CONCLUSION: The transobturator tape technique therefore appears to be feasible in males. It does not appear to comprise any particular risks for adjacent organs. This anatomical study appeared to be essential before considering an in vivo application.

[Treatment of postoperative male urinary incontinence by INVANCE prosthesis: preliminary results]
Fassi-Fehri H, Cherasse A, Badet L, Pasticier G, Landry JL, Martin X, Gelet A
Prog Urol 2004 Dec;14(6):1171-6.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the preliminary results of treatment of postoperative male stress urinary incontinence (SUI) by the INVANCE (AMS) suburethral sling. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From June 2003 to May 2004, 22 patients with stress urinary incontinence secondary to prostatic surgery (13 radical prostatectomies, 7 Ablatherm, 2 transurethral resections of the prostate) were treated by INVANCE sling. The patients presented either grade 1 incontinence (1 to 2 pads per day), or grade 2 incontinence (3 to 4 pads per day), or grade 3 incontinence (5 or more pads per day). The INVANCE process uses a rectangular polyester sling positioned under the bulbar urethra via a perineal incision. It is attached to the 2 ischiopubic rami by 3 titanium screws using a disposable electric screwdriver. Patients were reviewed every 3 months to evaluate the results (continence, Qmax, post-voiding residual volume, IPSS score, quality of life) RESULTS: The mean duration of the procedure was 79 minutes (range: 60-120). No intraoperative incidents were observed. The bladder catheter was removed on D1 (n=20) or D2 (n=2). The mean length of stay was 3.3 days (range: 2-8). Complications consisted of perineal haematoma (n=1), acute urinary retention after catheter removal (n=4), sling infection requiring removal (n=1), and prolonged perineal pain (n=5). No de novo irritative or obstructive urinary tract disorders were observed. With a median follow-up of 12 weeks (range: 3-44), 11 patients were completely continent (50%), 5 patients were significantly improved (22.7%) and 6 patients were considered to be failures (27.3%), 3 of whom had previously received external beam radiotherapy. CONCLUSION: The INVANCE process appears to be a simple and effective option for the treatment of grade 1 and 2 postoperative male stress urinary incontinence.

Complications of synthetic graft materials used in suburethral sling procedures.
Tsui KP, Ng SC, Tee YT, Yeh GP, Chen GD
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2005 Mar-Apr;16(2):165-7. Epub 2004 Oct 19.

Problems relating to the erosion of sling material, through either the vagina or the urethra, have been encountered with almost all kinds of synthetic sling materials. We present four unusual cases of women using different synthetic materials and the complications that occurred. The biopsies were examined histologically and analyzed for collagen and inflammatory reactions. Four patients who underwent suburethral slingplasty previously with different sling materials required surgical management for complications, including one intravesical Ethibond migration, vaginal mucosal mesh erosion in two patients, and one proximal urethral overcorrection with intravesical erosion. We reviewed the literature regarding the amount of mesh erosion and connective tissue reaction with synthetic materials. The efficiency of mesh removal was assessed. The four patients maintained urinary continence after urethrolysis and removal of the mesh. Fibrosis and severe inflammatory reactions were found in the connective tissue adjacent to the mesh as well as the Prolene mesh. Technically, it would be easier to remove the graft of patch sling if rejection or erosion occurs.

Assessing outcome after a modified vaginal wall sling for stress incontinence with intrinsic sphincter deficiency.
Costantini E, Mearini L, Mearini E, Pajoncini C, Guercini F, Bini V, Porena M
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2005 Mar-Apr;16(2):138-46. Epub 2004 Oct 22.

Forty women with stress incontinence, intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD), associated or not with urethral hypermobility, a Valsalva leak point pressure (VLLP) <60 cmH(2)0 and a maximum urethral closure pressure <30 cmH(2)0 underwent in situ vaginal wall sling. The main modification to the technique was the use of two small Marlex meshes placed at the lateral edges of the sling. Outcome was assessed by pad use, surgical results and patients' satisfaction. Data of 39/40 patients were analyzed after a minimum follow-up of 1 year. After surgery 30/39 patients were completely dry (no pads), stress incontinence disappeared in 22/39, and 30/39 patients were satisfied with outcome. Reasons for dissatisfaction included recurrence of stress incontinence in three, infections in one and urge incontinence in five. Overall results are good given this category of patients. The vaginal wall sling can be recommended for patients with ISD because the results are promising, it corrects urethral hypermobility and, in our experience, it does not cause obstruction if correctly performed.

Prevalence, impact on the quality of life and pathophysiological determinants of nocturia in urinary incontinent women.
Massolt ET, Wooning MM, Stijnen T, Vierhout ME
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2005 Mar-Apr;16(2):132-7. Epub 2004 Oct 21.

The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of nocturia in incontinent women in a urogynaecologic practice and its association with the quality of life and to estimate the prevalences of the pathophysiological categories among nocturics. From 1 January 2002, all patients with complaints of urinary incontinence were analysed according to a specific protocol: multichannel urodynamic testing, a 1-h International Incontinence Society (ICS) pad test and a 3-day frequency-volume (FV) chart. From 1 June 2002, subjects had to fill in a standardised quality of life questionnaire as well. Nocturia was defined as two or more micturitions per night calculated from the FV chart. Evaluable FV charts were received from111 patients, and 72 patients completed the questionnaires correctly. The overall prevalence of nocturia was 48.6% (confidence interval: 43.9-53.3%). Nocturia had a negative impact on several aspects of the quality of life. The maximum voided volume was significantly (p=0.005) less in nocturics. The 24-h frequency was higher in nocturics (p=0.001). Nocturics lost more urine during the pad test (p=0.039). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the greater the proportion of 24-h urine excreted at night, the greater the odds of having nocturia and that the lesser the maximum voided volume, the greater the odds of having nocturia. The majority (92.7%) of the nocturics can be classified into one of the responsible pathophysiologic categories: nocturnal polyuria in 51.2%, a low functional bladder capacity in 14.6%, a combination of both in 9.8%, polyuria in 4.9% and a combination of polyuria and nocturnal polyuria in 12.2% of the cases. Nocturia is a frequent symptom among urinary incontinent patients, with a negative impact on several aspects of the quality of life. With a FV chart, nocturics can be classified into one of the responsible pathophysiologic categories in the majority (92.7%) of the cases.

Tension-free vaginal tape: a prospective subjective and objective outcome analysis.
Richter HE, Norman AM, Burgio KL, Goode PS, Wright KC, Benton J, Varner RE
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2005 Mar-Apr;16(2):109-13. Epub 2004 Oct 23.

The purpose of this prospective study was to describe the effects of the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure on subjective and objective outcomes. Eighty-seven women (aged 31-95 years) underwent a TVT procedure and were followed for up to 24 months using the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7), Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6), and a Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire. IIQ-7 scores improved from a mean 51.1 before surgery to 12.7 at 1 month (p<0.001) indicating reduced impact of incontinence on quality of life. UDI-6 scores declined from a mean 61.8 to 21.9 (p<0.001) indicating improvement in urinary symptoms. At 1 month, 91.2% of patients were satisfied. Improvements on all measures were maintained throughout follow-up. Urodynamic evaluation of 57 patients (mean: 15.0 months) showed that 91.2% had a negative stress test. Results indicate significant immediate and sustained improvement in incontinence impact and urinary symptoms, and a high rate of patient satisfaction and objective cure.

How urgent is urgency? A review of current methods of assessment.
Freeman RM
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2005 Mar-Apr;16(2):93-5. Epub 2004 Nov 18.

Learning outcomes of a group behavioral modification program to prevent urinary incontinence.
Sampselle CM, Messer KL, Seng JS, Raghunathan TE, Hines SH, Diokno AC
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2005 Mar 15;.

This study describes acquisition of knowledge and motor skill in bladder training (BT) and pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) and adherence following a behavioral modification program (BMP). Essentially continent (0-5 episodes in past year) community-dwelling older women (n=359) were randomized to treatment (n=164), a 2-h group education session supplemented by one brief individualized session of approximately 10 min, or control (n=195), no instruction, and followed for 12 months. Knowledge, motor skill, and adherence to the BMP were documented. Changes in pelvic muscle function and voiding interval were used to validate self-reported adherence. Following group instruction, mean BT and PFMT knowledge was 90 and 86%, respectively; 68% demonstrated correct PFMT technique without additional instruction, 29% required brief instruction, and 3% were unable to learn PFMT technique. Adherence ranged from 63 to 82% for PFMT and 58 to 67% for BT. Group instruction supplemented with brief individual instruction as needed is an effective teaching method for BT and PFMT.

mRNA assessment for procollagen production in women with genuine stress urinary incontinence.
Bakas PG, Liapis AE, Zervolea I, Voutsinas G, Kletsas D, Creatsas G
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2004 Nov-Dec;15(6):429-31; discussion 431. Epub 2004 Jun 9.

The aim of the study was to examine changes in the levels of mRNA for procollagen type I and III in women with or without genuine stress incontinence (GSI). The study was performed in the 2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of University of Athens. Sixty-eight women participated in the study and they were divided in two groups. We did not find statistically significant difference between the two groups of patients in relation to the amount of mRNA of procollagen type I and III (p>0.05), but the quantity of collagen type I and III was significantly reduced in patients with stress incontinence (p<0.05). The possible cause for the reduction in the amount of collagen in women with GSI could be attributed to either a disturbance in the translation of mRNA to protein (collagen) or increased catabolism of collagen by its collagenase.

Preoperative maximal flow rate may be a predictive factor for the outcome of tension-free vaginal tape procedure for stress urinary incontinence.
Paick JS, Kim SW, Ku JH, Oh SJ, Son H, Park JY
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2004 Nov-Dec;15(6):413-7; discussion 417. Epub 2004 Jun 4.

This study examined factors potentially predicting on the outcome of the tension-free vaginal tape procedure for stress urinary incontinence. A total of 60 women (aged 35-71 years, mean 57) with at least follow-up of 2 years were included in the study. The tension-free vaginal tape procedure was performed under local anesthesia except in two patients. At the latest follow-up 50 (83.3%) were cured of stress urinary incontinence. Two patients had new-onset urge symptoms without urge incontinence episodes. Multivariate regression analysis showed maximal flow rate to be associated with 0.9-fold risk of the failure; no other parameters had statistical significance. Our results confirm the feasibility and safety of the tension-free vaginal tape procedure and demonstrate that preoperative low maximal flow rate may be associated with the failure of the tension-free vaginal tape procedure.

In vivo tension sustained by fascial sling in pubovaginal sling surgery for female stress urinary incontinence.
Lin AT, Wang SJ, Chen KK, Chang LS
J Urol 2005 Mar;173(3):894-7.

PURPOSE: In pubovaginal sling surgery arguments have focused on selecting stronger sling materials, better suturing methods and superior fixation techniques. However, the grounding information prerequisite for these arguments is still lacking, ie the in vivo tension sustained by the sling. We designed this study to obtain this information. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 10 female patients (mean age 65.4 years) underwent pubovaginal sling surgery while under epidural anesthesia. A strip of rectus fascia (2 x 6 cm) was isolated. Each end of the fascia was anchored with a 1-zero Prolene suture (Ethicon, Somerville, New Jersey). The fascial sling was placed over the proximal urethra. Both ends of the prolene (polypropylene) sutures were transferred to the lower abdominal incision and tied on each other. The fascial sling was adjusted just to touch the proximal urethra without elevating it. We hooked the tied polypropylene suture on a digital force gauge to measure the tension sustained by the fascial sling. Patients were instructed to cough, and the tension was measured at different bladder volumes (100, 200, 300, 400 ml) and in 2 positions (horizontal and operative table tilted head-up 20 degrees). Intravesical pressure was monitored with a pressure transducer to ensure adequate cough strength. We also investigated the in vitro length-tension relationship and tensile strength of 3 rectus fascia strips (0.5 x 6 cm) obtained from 3 of these patients. RESULTS: Mean tension +/- SEM sustained by the fascial sling during cough in the horizontal position was 0.046 +/- 0.004, 0.043 +/- 0.006, 0.0475 +/- 0.006 and 0.0485 +/- 0.007 kg at 100, 200, 300 and 400 ml bladder volume, respectively. Bladder volume did not statistically affect the sustained tension. The 20-degree head-up position also did not statistically change the tension sustained. In vitro study showed that the fascia strip could be stretched for a mean of 0.4 cm before sling tension began to increase. A mean load of 2.4 kg broke 0.5 x 6 cm strips. CONCLUSIONS: In the horizontal and mild tilting positions during an increase in intra-abdominal pressure, the fascial sling only sustains minor tension, which is far less than the maximal load needed to break fascial strips. The excellent elasticity of the fascia may dissipate the straining force and partly explains the measured small sustained tension.

Transurethral polydimethylsiloxane implantation: a valid option for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence due to intrinsic sphincter deficiency without urethral hypermobility.
Zullo MA, Plotti F, Bellati F, Muzii L, Angioli R, Panici PB
J Urol 2005 Mar;173(3):898-902.

PURPOSE: In this study we evaluated the 5-year followup results of periurethral polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) injection for female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) secondary to intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD) without hypermobility of the vesicourethral junction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 61 female patients with ISD were enrolled in this prospective, observational study. Preoperative and postoperative assessment included a standardized urogynecologic history with questions regarding urinary function, urogynecologic and neurological physical examination, and urodynamic assessment. All patients underwent periurethral PDMS injection. Patient followup was performed 1, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months after surgery. RESULTS: At 60 months after injection the SUI cure rate was 18%, the improvement rate was 39% and the failure rate was 43%. The success rate was 57%. Of the patients 45 (74%) subjectively improved with respect to the severity of urinary incontinence. No postoperative early complications were found. At 60 months of followup only minor complications were reported (11%). CONCLUSIONS: Careful patient selection by optimal diagnostic tools are essential for maximizing the results of urethral bulking agent therapy. PDMS injection in women with SUI due to ISD with limited urethral mobility is a valid, minimally invasive procedure.

Dysfunctional voiding and incontinence scoring system: quantitative evaluation of incontinence symptoms in pediatric population.
Akbal C, Genc Y, Burgu B, Ozden E, Tekgul S
J Urol 2005 Mar;173(3):969-73.

PURPOSE: Functional voiding problems in children are common. Although pathophysiology and presentation of this clinical entity are well described, there is not yet a generally accepted method of quantitative and standard evaluation of clinical symptoms, and there are few studies addressing the issue of symptom scoring in children. We investigated use of a symptom scoring system in children with functional voiding problems and the normal population, and validated it using a scientific tool. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A symptom scoring system was designed empirically. The questionnaire was composed of items regarding daytime symptoms, nighttime symptoms, voiding habits, bowel habits and quality of life. There were 2 groups whose symptoms were evaluated using this scoring system. Group 1 consisted of 86 patients who were admitted to our clinic with various wetting and daytime voiding problems. Group 2 consisted of 265 controls with no urological complaints. Parents of all children were asked to fill out a questionnaire that included the symptom scoring system. Boys with lower urinary tract abnormalities, and patients with spina bifida occulta and neurogenic bladder were excluded from the study. Odds ratios of answers to each item in the questionnaire were used to define strength of the questions to differentiate patients from healthy controls. According to the value of odds ratios, questions were modified and a score for each question was given. Receiver operating characteristic plots were used to define detection cutoff or threshold score, and Youden's index was used to detect best reflecting optimal sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: The total score was determined to range from 0 to 35, and items were modified to 13 questions and 1 quality of life question at the end of the study. Among the 86 patients in group 1 (female-to-male ratio 1.5:1) mean score was 18.56. Among the 265 controls in group 2 (female-to-male ratio 1.5:1) mean score was 2.88. Statistical analysis revealed that within a confidence interval of 96.2% patients with a score of 8.5 or greater had voiding abnormalities, with 90% sensitivity and 90% specificity. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 genders and 2 age groups of 4 to 7 and 8 to 10 years. CONCLUSIONS: This statistically validated functional voiding problems symptom score may provide accurate, objective and scientific bases to grade the symptoms in comparative research, diagnosis, treatment and followup of patients with wetting and functional voiding disorders.

Midline intravaginal slingplasty for treatment of urinary stress incontinence: results of an independent audit up to 2 years after surgery.
Ijland MM, Fischer DC, Kieback DG, McGrath G, Farnsworth B
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2005 Mar 2;.

Recently, the midline intravaginal slingplasty (anterior IVS) directed at reinforcing the pubourethral ligament was introduced for treatment of urinary stress incontinence. An independent telephone interview to evaluate urinary symptoms and surgery-related changes in quality of life was performed between 12 and 32 months after surgery. Of 52 women initially enrolled, 3 were lost during follow-up. None of the patients experienced infection, rejection or erosion of the tape. The procedure failed in 7 patients whereas in 42 patients cure of stress incontinence was achieved. This was not only verified by clinical examination at initial follow-up but also confirmed by the patients at the time of the interview. Although about two-thirds of the patients reported urge incontinence and/or voiding difficulties during their interview, the validation of the surgery was rather high and only in a minority did urinary complaints translate into reduced quality of life.

Suprapubically assisted operative cystoscopy in the management of intravesical TVT synthetic mesh segments.
Rosenblatt P, Pulliam S, Edwards R, Boyles SH
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2005 Feb 26;.

The tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) sling has become one of the most common procedures performed for the treatment of female stress incontinence. Perforations of the bladder during the TVT placement are relatively common, but are usually noted on cystoscopy and corrected at the time of the procedure. Undetected perforation may result in several complications including recurrent urinary tract infections, bladder stone formation, and pelvic pain. A novel technique is described using operative cystoscopy with suprapubic assistance, which provides an effective means for resection of intravesical mesh. Unlike traditional approaches via laparotomy, this minimally invasive procedure may allow for successful mesh removal while avoiding the morbidity of an open procedure.

Transvaginal suture placement for bleeding control with the tension-free vaginal tape procedure.
Neumann M
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2005 Feb 24;.

Tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) is a well-established surgical procedure for the treatment of female urinary stress incontinence. The operation, described by Ulmsten in 1995, is based on a midurethral Prolene tape support. TVT is accepted as an easy-to-learn and safe minimally invasive surgical technique. Intraoperative bleeding was described as complicating former surgical methods for correction of female urinary stress incontinence as well as TVT. The aim of this paper was to describe a simple transvaginal hemostatic suture placement to control accidental intraoperative hemorrhage. Of 566 patients undergoing TVT and followed for up to 68 months, 9 (1.6%) had intraoperative bleeding of 200-800 ml, all of which were diagnosed and corrected among the first 466 procedures. The last 100 patients had a transvaginal hemostatic suture placed whenever more than minimal bleeding occurred and hemostasis was achieved immediately with all. The benefit of this minimal, fast, and simple surgical step is assessed and discussed.

Laparoscopic Burch Colposuspension versus Tension-Free Vaginal Tape: A Randomized Trial.
Paraiso MF, Walters MD, Karram MM, Barber MD
Obstet Gynecol Surv 2005 Mar;60(3):166-7.

Many of the benefits of the tension-free vaginal tape procedure for treatment of stress incontinence are derived from its minimally invasive surgical approach. The authors theorized that laparoscopic Burch colposuspension might offer the same advantages and conducted this randomized, prospective trial to compare the 2 procedures.Seventy-two women with primary urodynamic stress incontinence requiring surgical correction participated in the study. Thirty-six were randomized to undergo a standard laparoscopic Burch colposuspension, and 36 were randomized to the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure. Each participant underwent multichannel urodynamic tests at enrollment and one year after surgery. In addition, patients were evaluated with the Urogenital Distress Inventory, Incontinence Impact Questionnaire, pelvic examinations, and patients' voiding diaries at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after surgery.Low enrollment and lack of adequate funding led to the decision to stop the trial with a median follow up of 18 months. Thirty-three patients in each study arm were available for analysis. Both groups were similar in clinical and demographic characteristics, except that women who underwent Burch colposuspension were more likely to undergo concomitant lysis of adhesions (32% compared with 11% in the TVT group). Hysterectomy was performed in 25% of patients in each group.The only significant differences in operative data between the two procedures were that total operating room time and length of operation were greater in the Burch colposuspension group (P <0.001 for both).Complication rates were similar in each group. Among those undergoing Burch colposuspension, operative complications included detection of bladder sutures in 2 patients and 1 bowel injury. Conversion to laparotomy was necessary in 3 patients. Two were the result of severe adhesions; and, in one, there were difficulties performing total laparoscopic hysterectomy. In the TVT group, there were 2 cystotomies and 1 blood transfusion.Postoperatively, one hematoma and one pelvic abscess occurred in each group. Four patients in the Burch procedure group and two in the TVT group had low hematocrit levels. In addition, among the women who had Burch colposuspension, one patient had a postoperative ileus, one required readmission for pulmonary embolism, one developed pyelonephritis, and two eventually underwent collagen injections. Among those undergoing TVT, voiding dysfunctions necessitated mesh transection in two patients, one of who also underwent concomitant bone anchor pubovaginal sling. Another patient developed vaginal erosion of the TVT mesh.Compared with enrollment, at the 1- and 2-year evaluations, patients reported significant overall improvement in incontinence episodes per week, pads required per week, percentage of patients using pads, the Urogenital Distress Inventory, and the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (range, P < 0.01 to P < 0.001). Overall satisfaction was similar for women treated by either procedure and ranged from 8.2 to 9.0 on a visual analog scale of 0 (not at all satisfied) to 10 (extremely satisfied).In multichannel urodynamic test results at 1 year after surgery, 18.8% of patients who underwent laparoscopic Burch colposuspension had urodynamic stress incontinence compared with 3.2% of those who had TVT (P = 0.056). There were no significant differences seen in detrusor overactivity, voiding dysfunction, pelvic organ prolapse quantification, or cotton-tipped swab examinations. There were no patients who developed symptomatic vaginal organ prolapse. At postoperative evaluations, 34.5% of Burch procedure patients and 23.5% of TVT patients were on anticholinergic therapy. Among women who developed postoperative symptoms of incontinence, the onset of symptoms was significantly earlier in those who underwent Burch colposuspension compared with women who had TVT (P = 0.04).

Dynamic morphological changes in the anterior vaginal wall before and after laparoscopic Burch colposuspension in primary urodynamic stress incontinence.
Yang JM, Yang SH, Huang WC
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2005 Mar;25(3):289-95.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate dynamic morphological changes in the anterior vaginal wall in primary urodynamic stress incontinence before and after laparoscopic Burch colposuspension and to explore the related effects on urethral and voiding functions. METHODS: Ultrasound cystourethrography and urodynamic study were performed in 112 patients with primary urodynamic stress incontinence before and 3 months after laparoscopic Burch colposuspension. Ultrasound assessment included measurement of the bladder neck positions at rest and during straining, the bladder wall thickness at the dome and trigone, and observation of the motion of the bladder neck in addition to the development of cystocele on Valsalva maneuver. On ultrasonography, a cystocele was defined as prolapse or descent of the bladder base below the bladder neck at rest, on Valsalva, or both. RESULTS: After laparoscopic Burch colposuspension, ultrasound cystourethrography revealed significant differences in the bladder neck position at rest and during stress (preoperative median 93 degrees vs. postoperative 70 degrees at rest and preoperative 160 degrees vs. postoperative 81 degrees during stress, P < 0.001, respectively) and rotational angle (preoperative median 58 degrees vs. postoperative 10 degrees , P < 0.001). A laparoscopic Burch operation corrected 50% (5/10) of the preoperative cystoceles. However, a residual cystocele developed postoperatively in 29% (30/102) of the women who did not have one previously. Postoperative ultrasonographic and urodynamic studies did not reveal any differences between those women with or without postoperative cystocele except for the residual urine volume, detrusor opening pressure, and straining and rotational angles of the bladder neck (P < 0.001, 0.032, 0.010 and < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic Burch colposuspension may correct a pre-existing cystocele, but in other patients a cystocele may persist or be disclosed. After laparoscopic Burch operation a persistent cystocele is not associated with urethral compression or voiding impairment. Copyright (c) 2005 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Trocar-assisted sling suspension for stress urinary incontinence: three-year follow-up.
Lee CL, Yen CF, Wang CJ, Lee PS, Chiu HC
J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 2004 Nov;11(4):525-9.

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate 3-year outcomes of trocar-assisted sling suspension (TASS) for genuine stress incontinence. DESIGN: Retrospective review (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). SETTING: University-based, tertiary-level center for endoscopic surgery. PATIENTS: One hundred forty women with genuine stress incontinence with bladder neck hypermobility. INTERVENTION: After standard surgery preparation and general endotracheal anesthesia, TASS was performed. The periurethral space and thicker parts of the pubocervical fascia were opened from the vagina. A 0.5-cm incision was made on both sides of the lower abdomen and was measured 4-cm lateral to the linea album and 2-3-cm above the pubic bone. A trocar was used to penetrate the incision site to the space of Retzius. A 2-cm x 30-cm folded polypropylene mesh was placed inside the vagina and was then pulled out of the trocar sheath by a laparoscopic forceps. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: All patients completed the procedures without exception. The average blood loss was less than 50 mL (range 10-200 mL). The operative time ranged from 20 to 90 minutes with a mean time of 32 +/- 12 minutes. Eleven patients had voiding difficulty. Six of them voided well after intermittent self-catheterization performed 28 days postoperatively. Seven patients had poor healing of the anterior vaginal wall; therefore, removal of mesh and wound repair were performed. One patient suffered from a retroperitoneal hematoma, and one patient had an intraoperative bladder injury. The overall complication rate was 14.3%. During 12-36 months of follow-up, 134 of 140 patients (95.7%) were satisfied with the surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results of our pilot study, TASS is quite feasible as a method of treatment for stress urinary incontinence. The surgery is not difficult to perform when compared with Burch colposuspension. Moreover, it encompasses the simplicity and effectiveness of tension-free vaginal tape surgery. In addition, TASS also can correct lateral wall defects such as cystocele.

Suburethral slingplasty evaluation study in North Queensland, Australia: The SUSPEND trial.
Lim YN, Muller R, Corstiaans A, Dietz HP, Barry C, Rane A
Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2005 Feb;45(1):52-9.

Abstract Objective: To compare the safety and efficacy of three types of suburethral slings for the treatment of urodynamic stress incontinence. Methods: Following ethics approval, 195 (3 x 65) patients with urodynamic stress incontinence were randomly assigned to undergo suburethral slingplasty with the Tension-free Vaginal Tape (TVT; Gynecare, Ethicon, Somerville, NJ, USA), Intravaginal Sling (IVS; Tyco Healthcare, Mansfield, MA, USA), or Suprapubic Arc Sling (SPARC; American Medical Systems, Minnetonka, MN, USA). The patients were blinded to the type of sling implanted. Main outcome measures were: (1) operative and short-term complications; (2) pre- and postoperative symptomatology; and (3) pre- and postoperative urodynamic findings. Results: There was a statistically significant increased rate of sling protrusion (13.1% vs. 3.3% and 1.7%; P = 0.04) in the SPARC group when compared to TVT and IVS. Otherwise, there were no significant differences between the groups with respect to the incidences of other operative complications, patients' main subjective outcomes, satisfaction rates, or postoperative urodynamic findings. The overall objective stress incontinence cure rates were 87.9%, 81.5% and 72.4% for the TVT, IVS, SPARC groups respectively (P = 0.11). Conclusions: All three slings appear quite successful for the treatment of stress incontinence. The SPARC tapes showed more sling protrusion complications and a trend towards lower objective cure rates; probably as a result of the insertion method used in this study which favoured a loose SPARC sling placement. The authors recommend that the SPARC slings be left tighter than TVT, or for the cough test to be carried out.

Urinary urgency and frequency: what should a clinician do?
Brubaker L
Obstet Gynecol 2005 Mar;105(3):661-7.

Obstetrician-gynecologists often care for women with urinary symptoms of urgency and frequency. These symptoms are bothersome and treatable. Although it is rare that serious disease is causative, the clinician must be alert to ominous signs and physical findings. Most patients experience relief of their symptoms after a simple initial evaluation with appropriately directed treatment. A step-wise evaluation includes the directed history and physical, assessment of urinary habits, typically with a urinary diary, and occasionally an assessment of voiding efficiency, typically with a postvoid residual. Treatments may include myofascial therapy when trigger points are present on physical examination. Behavioral therapy and pharmaceuticals also play an important role. Persistent symptoms, hematuria, severe de novo postoperative symptoms, and ominous physical findings may warrant specialty consultation.

Research of surgical outcome of incontinence surgery in women.
Schuessler B
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005 Mar;192(3):984-5.

Antimuscarinic agents exhibit local inhibitory effects on muscarinic receptors in bladder-afferent pathways.
Kim Y, Yoshimura N, Masuda H, de Miguel F, Chancellor MB
Urology 2005 Feb;65(2):238-42.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the potential of antimuscarinic agents for sensory mechanisms in overactive bladder using intravesical instillation. METHODS: Antimuscarinic agents were instilled intravesically in rats using two protocols. In the high-dose protocol, 5 mg atropine, oxybutynin, and dimethindene (M2-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist) were instilled into the bladder, and cystometric parameters, such as bladder capacity, intercontraction interval, pressure threshold, and maximal voiding pressure were monitored. In the low-dose protocol, 0.1 and 0.5 mug/mL oxybutynin, trospium, tolterodine, and dimethindene were continuously infused into the bladder. The doses chosen were based on the calculated urine-excreted concentrations of trospium typically achieved from human oral treatment of 40 mg/day. The effect of carbachol with and without the low-dose agents was then assessed. RESULTS: With the high-dose protocol, bladder capacity, intercontraction interval, and pressure threshold were increased when atropine and oxybutynin were instilled, but not when dimethindene was used. The maximal voiding pressure was not affected by any of the agents tested. In the low-dose protocol, none of the cystometric parameters were altered with antimuscarinic agents alone. The intercontraction interval decreased with intravesical carbachol (65% +/- 0.1% compared with baseline), but this was prevented with concomitant antimuscarinic agents. CONCLUSIONS: We have separated the local inhibitory effects of antimuscarinic agents during the storage phase from a decrease in voiding pressure. Intravesical instillation of antimuscarinic agents at clinically meaningful concentrations also suppressed carbachol-induced bladder overactivity. Antimuscarinic agents may be effective in treating overactive bladder, not only by suppression of muscarinic receptor-mediated detrusor muscle contractions, but also by blocking muscarinic receptors in bladder-afferent pathways.

Effects of estrogen with and without progestin on urinary incontinence.
Hendrix SL, Cochrane BB, Nygaard IE, Handa VL, Barnabei VM, Iglesia C, Aragaki A, Naughton MJ, Wallace RB, McNeeley SG
JAMA 2005 Feb 23;293(8):935-48.

CONTEXT: Menopausal hormone therapy has long been credited with many benefits beyond the indications of relieving hot flashes, night sweats, and vaginal dryness, and it is often prescribed to treat urinary incontinence (UI). OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of menopausal hormone therapy on the incidence and severity of symptoms of stress, urge, and mixed UI in healthy postmenopausal women. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Women's Health Initiative multicenter double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of menopausal hormone therapy in 27,347 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years enrolled between 1993 and 1998, for whom UI symptoms were known in 23,296 participants at baseline and 1 year. INTERVENTIONS: Women were randomized based on hysterectomy status to active treatment or placebo in either the estrogen plus progestin (E + P) or estrogen alone trials. The E + P hormones were 0.625 mg/d of conjugated equine estrogen plus 2.5 mg/d of medroxyprogesterone acetate (CEE + MPA); estrogen alone consisted of 0.625 mg/d of conjugated equine estrogen (CEE). There were 8506 participants who received CEE + MPA (8102 who received placebo) and 5310 who received CEE alone (5429 who received placebo). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incident UI at 1 year among women without UI at baseline and severity of UI at 1 year among women who had UI at baseline. RESULTS: Menopausal hormone therapy increased the incidence of all types of UI at 1 year among women who were continent at baseline. The risk was highest for stress UI (CEE + MPA: relative risk [RR], 1.87 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.61-2.18]; CEE alone: RR, 2.15 [95% CI, 1.77-2.62]), followed by mixed UI (CEE + MPA: RR, 1.49 [95% CI, 1.10-2.01]; CEE alone: RR, 1.79 [95% CI, 1.26-2.53]). The combination of CEE + MPA had no significant effect on developing urge UI (RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.99-1.34), but CEE alone increased the risk (RR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.10-1.58). Among women experiencing UI at baseline, frequency worsened in both trials (CEE + MPA: RR, 1.38 [95% CI, 1.28-1.49]; CEE alone: RR, 1.47 [95% CI, 1.35-1.61]). Amount of UI worsened at 1 year in both trials (CEE + MPA: RR, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.06-1.36]; CEE alone: RR, 1.59 [95% CI, 1.39-1.82]). Women receiving menopausal hormone therapy were more likely to report that UI limited their daily activities (CEE + MPA: RR, 1.18 [95% CI, 1.06-1.32]; CEE alone: RR, 1.29 [95% CI, 1.15-1.45]) and bothered or disturbed them (CEE + MPA: RR, 1.22 [95% CI, 1.13-1.32]; CEE alone: RR, 1.50 [95% CI, 1.37-1.65]) at 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: Conjugated equine estrogen alone and CEE + MPA increased the risk of UI among continent women and worsened the characteristics of UI among symptomatic women after 1 year. Conjugated equine estrogen with or without progestin should not be prescribed for the prevention or relief of UI.

Overactive bladder: a clinical entity or a marketing hype?
Madersbacher H
Eur Urol 2005 Mar;47(3):273-6. Epub 2004 Dec 15.

Help-Seeking Behaviour and Associated Factors among Women with Urinary Incontinence in France, Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom.
O'donnell M, Lose G, Sykes D, Voss S, Hunskaar S
Eur Urol 2005 Mar;47(3):385-92. Epub 2004 Nov 21.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the proportion of women who consult their doctor about urinary incontinence (UI), and explore factors associated with help-seeking in France, Germany, Spain and the UK. METHODS: A representative sample of 29,500 women received a 13 item postal questionnaire to identify those with UI. A randomly selected sub-sample of 2953 women with UI received a more detailed follow-up questionnaire. RESULTS: There was a response rate of 58% in the initial survey and 53% in the second. Thirty-one percent of all women had consulted a doctor about their UI symptoms with more women consulting in France and Germany than in the UK and Spain. A number of factors relating to general health care, UI and women's attitudes were found to be associated with help-seeking after adjusting for women's age, UI duration and frequency, and 'bothersomeness' of UI; factors traditionally associated with help-seeking. After adjusting for these factors, willingness to take long-term medication and having spoken to others about UI were found to be strong predictors of help-seeking in all four countries.

Long-Term Open-Label Solifenacin Treatment Associated with Persistence with Therapy in Patients with Overactive Bladder Syndrome.
Haab F, Cardozo L, Chapple C, Ridder AM
Eur Urol 2005 Mar;47(3):376-384. Epub 2005 Jan 5.

OBJECTIVE: To examine safety and tolerability findings as primary endpoints, and efficacy outcomes as secondary endpoints, of solifenacin treatment over a period of up to 1 year. Long-term efficacy in the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome depends in part on the patient's persistence with pharmacologic therapy. Agents with a favourable therapeutic index supporting high levels of patient satisfaction and persistence are needed. METHODS: The present study was a 40-week open-label extension of two 12-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind studies of solifenacin treatment in patients with OAB. Patients who completed the 12-week studies were offered participation in the open-label extension study. All patients who entered the open-label extension study initially received solifenacin 5mg daily for 4 weeks, after which a flexible dosing regimen allowed patients to individualise their treatment (5mg or 10mg) at each of the 3 study visits. Safety and tolerability assessments (the primary variable) included adverse event reporting. Efficacy data were collected from micturition diaries completed at weeks 16, 28, 40, and 52. RESULTS: Ninety-one percent (1637/1802) of patients who completed the two 12-week randomised studies chose to participate in the long-term open-label extension study. A total of 81% of patients completed 40 weeks of open-label treatment. Solifenacin treatment was safe and well tolerated, and rates of anticholinergic side effects were relatively low. Only 4.7% of patients discontinued treatment owing to adverse events. Improvements in major symptoms of OAB were noted for all patients for up to 52 weeks of treatment. In patients randomised to solifenacin in the double-blind studies, there were small incremental improvements in all efficacy parameters (reductions in episodes per 24hours of urgency, reductions in frequency and urge incontinence, and increases in volume voided per micturition) over the course of the extension study. Efficacy was confirmed when outcomes were assessed as a function of total solifenacin exposure. Patient satisfaction with solifenacin tolerability (85%) and efficacy (74%) were high. These results indicate that long-term treatment with solifenacin was well tolerated and associated with improvements in efficacy parameters based on patient diary data recorded over the 12-month treatment period. Moreover, the high level of patient satisfaction reported appeared to correlate well with the quantified improvements in key symptoms demonstrated in this study. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term therapy with solifenacin resulted in a favourable tolerability profile, and was associated with improvements in efficacy parameters based on diary data recorded over a 12-month period. This balance of tolerability and efficacy with solifenacin was associated with excellent persistence with therapy. These results suggest that solifenacin may be useful for the long-term treatment of the chronic symptoms associated with OAB.

Should we switch over to tolterodine in every child with non-neurogenic daytime urinary incontinence in whom oxybutynin failed?
Yucel S, Akkaya E, Guntekin E, Kukul E, Danisman A, Akman S, Baykara M
Urology 2005 Feb;65(2):369-73.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical efficacy of tolterodine prescribed to children with non-neurogenic daytime urinary incontinence secondary to overactive bladder who had previously failed to improve with oral oxybutynin treatment and its relation to the side-effect profile and compliance status. METHODS: We evaluated 92 children presenting with daytime wetting, with or without nocturnal enuresis, who were receiving oral oxybutynin treatment. Children with chronic urinary tract infections, a neurologic lesion, an anatomic abnormality of lower urinary tract, voiding abnormality, and less than 1 year of oxybutynin treatment were excluded. Of the remaining 41 children (mean age 7.2 years, range 5 to 14 years), 30 agreed to switch to tolterodine and 11 continued receiving oxybutynin. Anticholinergic side effects, compliance, and clinical efficacy were assessed in the follow-up. RESULTS: Of the 30 patients who switched to tolterodine, a complete response was in 18 patients (60%), partial improvement in 11 (37%), and no improvement in 1 (3%) after a mean of 14.4 months (range 12 to 16 months) of oxybutynin treatment. The anticholinergic side-effect score was 7.2, 9.3, and 11, respectively, for those with a complete response, partial improvement, and no improvement in the compliant group. The noncompliant group had the greatest side-effect score (16.9). The fairly compliant group had a side-effect score of 12.3. After a mean of 7.1 months (range 6 to 9 months) of tolterodine use, a complete response was reported in 24 patients and partial improvement in 5 (17%). In 1 patient, treatment failed completely. However, his side-effect score decreased from 11 to 2. All tolterodine users were compliant with treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study in children with non-neurogenic daytime urinary incontinence have shown that tolterodine may increase the efficacy of pharmacotherapy, particularly in patients noncompliant to oxybutynin. Additional investigation of the anticholinergic side-effect scores and compliance tables is required to improve the clinical results of pharmacotherapy in incontinence due to overactive bladder in children.

Clinical usefulness of pelvic floor reeducation for men undergoing radical prostatectomy.
Pannek J, Konig JE
Urol Int 2005;74(1):38-43.

INTRODUCTION: Urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy is a significant clinical problem. We evaluated the clinical usefulness of early-onset pelvic floor reeducation (EPFR) as compared with later-onset pelvic floor reeducation (LPFR) in patients undergoing radical retropubic prostatectomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The continence status of 132 consecutive patients who underwent retropubic radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer was assessed 1 year later by a standardized questionnaire. Fifty-eight patients started EPFR 7 days after surgery. Fifty-five patients attended LPFR 4 weeks after surgery. Forty-six patients received no pelvic floor retraining, 28 attended LPFR without EPFR, 27 patients received EPFR and LPFR, and 31 patients attended EPFR without LPFR. RESULTS: Overall, 87 men were continent, 37 patients felt moderately incontinent, and 8 men suffered from severe incontinence. We could not observe a statistically significant influence of any kind of pelvic floor reeducation on continence status, time to continence, frequency or volume of urine loss, or the use of pads. CONCLUSION: A routine prophylactic use of combined EPFR and LPFR in all patients does not seem to be justified.

Do BPH patients have neurogenic detrusor dysfunction? A uro-neurological assessment.
Sakakibara R, Hamano S, Uchiyama T, Liu Z, Yamanishi T, Hattori T
Urol Int 2005;74(1):44-50.

INTRODUCTION: Most men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are middle- aged and elderly. Neurogenic detrusor dysfunction (NDD) may also occur in these populations. We made an uro-neurological assessment in such patients in order to investigate the possibility of a concurrent NDD in patients diagnosed with BPH, and to correlate the presence of NDD with treatment outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 28 men, mean age 66.4 years, referred by urologists at the outpatient clinic as BPH (initial diagnosis: BPH alone, 24, BPH and NDD, 4) with regards to digital examination and lower urinary tract symptoms, underwent urodynamic study and neurological examination. MRI scans were performed to confirm the diagnosis. RESULTS: Urodynamic study (except for 2, acontractile detrusor (AD)) showed equivocal obstruction (EO), 6; underactive detrusor (UD), 9 (voiding phase); detrusor overactivity (DO), 12; urethral relaxation, 1, and reduced sensation, 5 (filling phase). EO correlated with the presence of UD (p = 0.03). DO did not correlate with the prostate size or urodynamically-defined outlet obstruction. Reduced sensation was common in patients >65 years of age (p = 0.05). Neurological examination/imaging showed exaggerated reflexes, 1; decreased reflexes, 6; multiple cerebral infarction, 8; cervical spondylosis, 1 (in patients with DO); lumbar spondylosis, 5 (in patients with AD/UD), and the final diagnosis was made: definite BPH, 6; probable BPH, 9; BPH and NDD, 13, and NDD were common in the patients aged >65 years (p = 0.015). Transurethral prostatectomy and alpha-blocker were mostly successful, but the failure rate was reported in definite BPH, none, probable BPH, 29%, and BPH and NDD, 33%. CONCLUSIONS: BPH patients, particularly those >65 years of age, commonly have NDD. Multiple cerebral infarction (upper neuron disorder) and lumbar spondylosis (lower neuron disorder) might contribute to DO and UD, respectively. A uro-neurological assessment is important to select typical BPH patients for maximizing therapeutic benefit.

Can neurologic examination predict type of detrusor sphincter-dyssynergia in patients with spinal cord injury?
Schurch B, Schmid DM, Karsenty G, Reitz A
Urology 2005 Feb;65(2):243-6.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the correlations in males with spinal cord injury (SCI) between the neurologic status and type of detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia (DSD) observed during urodynamic examinations and to evaluate the change in the DSD pattern over time. METHODS: A total of 105 male patients with chronic SCI were neurologically examined according to the American Spinal Cord Injury Association protocol and underwent video-urodynamic examinations. DSD observed during urodynamic studies was classified according to the Blaivas classification. To assess the stability of the DSD over time, patients who had been recently injured were clinically and urodynamically controlled after 1 year and thereafter. RESULTS: A statistically significant positive correlation was found between the DSD type and completeness or incompleteness of the SCI lesion. Patients with an incomplete sensory and motor SCI lesion presented with DSD type 1 compared with patients with complete sensory and motor SCI lesion, who had DSD type 2 to type 3. A correlation was also found between the American Spinal Cord Injury Association scores and the DSD type. No correlation was found between the DSD type and lesion level. At medium to long-term follow-up, a significant change was found in the DSD type. CONCLUSIONS: The neurologic status and DSD type after SCI showed significant correlations. Therefore, neurologic examination and determination of the DSD type might be helpful to complete the neurourologic diagnosis and to assist in confirming completeness of the lesion after acute injury. Because DSD seems to become aggravated with time, regular urodynamic follow-up examinations are mandatory in patients with DSD to adjust their treatment, if necessary.

Three-dimensional ultrasonography to assess long-term durability of periurethral collagen in women with stress urinary incontinence due to intrinsic sphincter deficiency.
Poon CI, Zimmern PE, Wilson TS, Defreitas GA, Foreman MR
Urology 2005 Jan;65(1):60-4.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the natural history of periurethral collagen injection (PCI) over time using serial three-dimensional ultrasonography (3DUS) of the urethra as an objective measure. METHODS: Retrospective chart review was performed for all patients who underwent PCI between February 1999 and February 2003. All had been diagnosed with stress urinary incontinence due to intrinsic sphincter deficiency without urethral hypermobility, had follow-up data including two or more 3DUS scans within 1 year or more, and had undergone no additional PCIs (ie, remained clinically improved). The follow-up examinations included serial history, symptom and quality-of-life (QOL) questionnaires (Urogenital Distress Inventory, global QOL visual analog scale [scale of 0 to 10, with 0 = best]), physical examination, and 3DUS scans. The primary subjective and objective outcomes were the Urogenital Distress Inventory and QOL scores and the 3DUS-determined periurethral collagen volume and configuration, respectively. RESULTS: Of the 54 patients undergoing PCI during the accrual period, 20 had follow-up of 1 year or longer (mean 2.0, range 1 to 3.8). The mean 3DUS collagen volumes were not statistically different at baseline at a mean of 4 months after PCI (2.9 +/- 1.9 cm3) compared with at the last follow-up visit (2.7 +/- 1.9 cm3; P = 0.34). The volume retention rate was 97% +/- 33% of the baseline volume. The periurethral configuration was circumferential in 80% and asymmetric in 20%, and was maintained over time. The postinjection Urogenital Distress Inventory question 3 (stress urinary incontinence) and QOL scores were significantly improved compared with the pre-PCI evaluations with a mean of 2.4 +/- 0.8 versus 1.4 +/- 0.7 (P = 0.013) and 7.3 +/- 2.6 versus 3.5 +/- 2.5 (P = 0.001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to demonstrate the long-term durability of PCI on serial 3DUS in association with improved continence and QOL using questionnaire analysis. This new knowledge provides a technical and therapeutic endpoint for PCI.

The comparison of artificial urinary sphincter implantation and endourethral macroplastique injection for the treatment of postprostatectomy incontinence.
Imamoglu MA, Tuygun C, Bakirtas H, Yigitbasi O, Kiper A
Eur Urol 2005 Feb;47(2):209-13.

OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness of macroplastique injection with artificial urinary sphincter implantation (AUS) for treatment of postprostatectomy incontinence (PPI). METHODS: A prospective randomized clinical trial including 45 patients with PPI was performed secondary to radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP), transvesical prostatectomy (TVP), transurethral prostatectomy (TURP), and TURP with TVP, in 12, 16, 16, 1 patients respectively. Patients were divided into two groups as minimal (group I) and total incontinence (group II) according to the severity of incontinence. Respectively, Group I (n = 21) and group II (n = 24) patients were randomized as AUS implantation (n = 11, n = 11) and macroplastique injection (n = 10, n = 13). Follow-up period was 48 (6-84) months in patients with macroplastique injection and 60 (8-120) months in AUS implantation. The success of the treatment was evaluated by calculating the average number of pads used by the patient per day, the weight of the pads and score of quality of life survey scale for each group both in the preoperative and in the postoperative period. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences between preoperative and postoperative average pad weight, average number of pads and quality of life scores, both in patients with minimal and total incontinence. In group I there was no statistically significant difference between the two techniques. However, in group II there was a significant difference favoring AUS implantation. CONCLUSIONS: Endourethral injection should be the treatment of choice for patients with minimal incontinence, whereas AUS implantation as the first choice for patients with total incontinence.

Patient satisfaction and clinical efficacy of the new perineal bone-anchored male sling.
Rajpurkar AD, Onur R, Singla A
Eur Urol 2005 Feb;47(2):237-42.

OBJECTIVE: We retrospectively evaluated the safety, efficacy and patient satisfaction following the male sling procedure for stress urinary incontinence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-six patients, with a median age of 67 years, underwent the perineal male sling procedure for stress urinary incontinence. Radical retropubic prostatectomy was the commonest etiology of SUI. The male sling was placed over the bulbar urethra, through a perineal incision and anchored with the help of bone screws inserted in the pubic rami. Efficacy and treatment satisfaction were evaluated with the help of the validated UCLA/RAND questionnaire and questions addressing treatment satisfaction. Patients were defined as "cured" if they were dry or "improved" if utilizing 1-2 pads per day (based on response to question 1 of the UCLA/RAND questionnaire. Responses to questions 4 and 5 of the UCLA/RAND were utilized to determine the impact of the procedure on urinary leakage and urinary function postoperatively. Complications if any were noted. RESULTS: One patient developed infection and two developed short-lasting perineal/buttock pain. Significantly, no patient developed urethral erosion. At a mean follow-up of 24 months, 34 patients were either dry (17/46, 37%) or utilizing only 1-2 pads per day (17/46, 37%), giving a cure/improvement rate of 74%. On evaluating the response to questions 4 and 5 of the UCLA/RAND questionnaire, 72% patients stated that urinary leakage and function were a "small to no problem". Moreover, 59% patients were moderately or completely satisfied with the procedure and 11% stated they were halfway satisfied with the procedure giving an overall satisfaction of 70%. A similar percentage felt that the treatment halfway or completely met their expectations. CONCLUSIONS: At a mean follow-up of 24 months, the male sling procedure appears to be effective in the management of male SUI with a success rate of 74%. Moreover, it is safe as evidenced by the absence of any major complications such as urethral erosion. Finally, it is associated with a 70% patient satisfaction.

Stress urinary incontinence in active elderly women.
Viktrup L, Koke S, Burgio KL, Ouslander JG
South Med J 2005 Jan;98(1):79-89.

Urinary incontinence in the elderly is a significant health problem fraught with isolation, depression, and an increased risk of institutionalization and medical complications. Stress urinary incontinence (SUI), the complaint of involuntary loss of urine during effort or exertion or during sneezing or coughing, is the most common type of urinary incontinence. SUI can seriously degrade the quality of life for many active seniors, and has become an economic challenge for society. With the rapid increase in the active elderly worldwide, SUI is becoming a significant global problem. However, since only a fraction of women with SUI have consulted a physician, the clinical extent and public health impact of SUI are probably underestimated. The mounting social, medical, and economic problem of SUI in active elderly women as a rapidly growing segment of the population worldwide is reviewed. We evaluate the age-related changes of the lower urinary tract, examine risk factors, and suggest different treatment options shown to be effective in reducing SUI in this population.

Effect of transobturator tape procedure on proximal urethral mobility.
Minaglia S, Ozel B, Hurtado E, Klutke CG, Klutke JJ
Urology 2005 Jan;65(1):55-9.

OBJECTIVES: To assess prospectively the degree of urethral mobility in the preoperative and postoperative periods after the transobturator tape procedure and correlate the findings with surgical outcome. METHODS: Thirty-six consecutive patients with stress urinary incontinence underwent the transobturator tape procedure. A cotton-swab test was performed before the procedure and at the 6-week postoperative follow-up visit to evaluate proximal urethral mobility. Cure was defined as the absence of leak during cough stress testing at cystometric capacity. RESULTS: Of the 36 patients, 26 were available for the complete follow-up evaluation. The mean preoperative and postoperative resting cotton-swab test values were 11.7 degrees and 13.6 degrees, respectively (P = 0.347). The mean preoperative and postoperative straining cotton-swab test values were 57.3 degrees and 48.4 degrees, respectively (P = 0.047). Of the 36 patients, 21 had a straining cotton-swab test result of 30 degrees or greater after surgery, and 19 (90.4%) of these 21 patients were objectively cured by the procedure. Overall, 21 patients (84%) were objectively cured of stress urinary incontinence. Four patients had urinary leakage during stress testing at cystometric capacity. Three of these patients reported subjective cure and one noted improvement. Of the 5 patients with a negative cotton-swab test after surgery, 2 were cured (50%), 2 were not cured, and 1 did not undergo cough stress testing at cystometric capacity because of urgency at 200-mL limiting bladder filling. CONCLUSIONS: The cure of urodynamic stress incontinence using the transobturator tape procedure does not require the correction of proximal urethral mobility.

Ectopic placement of AMS 800 urinary control system pressure-regulating balloon.
Wilson SK, Delk JR 2nd
Urology 2005 Jan;65(1):167-70.

OBJECTIVES: The AMS 800 sphincter urinary control system (artificial urinary sphincter) is frequently placed in patients with scarred retroperitoneal spaces. Placement of the pressure-regulating balloon (PRB) requires a second abdominal incision in the traditional perineal surgical technique. In the new transverse scrotal incision method of sphincter placement, the transversalis fascia is pierced to place the PRB in the space of Retzius. We present a novel technique of ectopic PRB placement requiring neither a second incision nor piercing the fascia. TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS: Nineteen patients underwent ectopic PRB placement during artificial urinary sphincter placement. Most patients (n = 17) were incontinent after radical prostatectomy, two were incontinent after transurethral resection of the prostate. Cuff placement was through a scrotal (n = 10) or perineal (n = 9) incision. In all patients, the incision was displaced toward either inguinal ring. A finger was passed through the ring forcibly cephalad and a space developed anterior to the transversalis fascia but beneath the abdominal muscles. The PRB was passed into this space. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study have shown that ectopic placement is easier and quicker. The PRB is usually not palpable. Two PRB hernias into the upper scrotum were noted after vigorous coughing. Two patients developed urethral atrophy under the cuff at 3 and 5.5 years. No erosions, infections, or mechanical failures were noted. Early outcomes with ectopic PRB placement seemed similar to that of traditional locations.

Vaginal wall erosion after transobturator tape procedure.
But I
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2005 Jan 12;.

Transobturator Prolene tape insertion represents a new method of operative treatment for stress urinary incontinence. The first results show that it is a simple and effective procedure accompanied by a minimum number of complications. Since February 2004, 30 Monarc procedures were done at our department and no intraoperative complications were observed. However, two cases (6.7%) of vaginal wall erosion due to the Prolene tape were noted 6 weeks after surgery. In a subsequent surgical procedure, the periurethral portion of the tape was removed and a new Prolene tape was placed through the retropubic space. Three months after secondary surgery both patients were continent, with no sign of erosion. The transobturator approach was introduced to minimize the risk of complications. However, the greater prevalence of vaginal wall erosion after this procedure found in our series demands a scrupulous search for this complication and for the mechanisms leading to its occurrence.

Transurethral resection of transvaginal tape.
McLennan MT
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2004 Sep-Oct;15(5):360-2. Epub 2004 May 01.

Urethral erosion is an uncommon complication after tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure. However, management is a challenge and morbidity significant because of the necessity to incise the urethra to gain access to the material. This is a report of a case of transurethral resection of such mesh. A 77-year-old women presented at 7 months postoperatively with complaints of incomplete emptying and persistent incontinence. Urodynamic testing and cystoscopy revealed intrinsic sphincter deficiency, an elevated post void residual and erosion of the TVT tape into the urethral lumen. The tape was removed without any incisions via an operative cystoscope and hysteroscopic scissors. All urinary symptoms resolved. Partial urethral transection can be managed successfully with transurethral resection of the material. This diagnosis should be considered in patients with incomplete emptying and recurrent incontinence.

The clinical and urodynamic effects of the tension free bladder neck sling procedure.
Long CY, Hsu SC, Chang Y, Chen YC, Su JH, Tsai EM
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2004 Sep-Oct;15(5):344-9. Epub 2004 Jun 04.

This study evaluated the clinical and urodynamic findings before and after tension-free bladder neck sling (TBS) procedure with Prolene tape. We enrolled 32 women who underwent TBS for genuine stress incontinence without intrinsic sphincter deficiency or severe uterovaginal prolapse. All subjects received 1-h pad test, Q-tip test, multichannel urodynamic testing, introital ultrasonography, and the Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Questionnaires before and 1 year after surgery. Of the 32 subjects 27 were cured of stress incontinence, two improved, and three failed. The incidence of irritative symptoms and incomplete bladder emptying were significantly lower after surgery. The mean urethral straining angle showed a significant decrease from 73.8 degrees preoperatively to 30.1 degrees postoperatively. At rest the postsurgical position of the bladder neck (BN) was localized more cranially. During straining both ventral and caudal mobility of the BN decreased significantly following TBS, causing a more cranial and dorsal position of the BN. Urodynamic parameters including functional urethral length, maximal urethral closure pressure, and pressure transmission ratio showed significant increases after surgery. TBS could decrease the hypermobility of the BN and restore the BN support to prevent urinary leakage during straining, instead of urethral obstruction. The subjective and objective cure rate of stress incontinence is 84%, similar to those results reported after retropubic urethropexy and tension-free vaginal tape procedure. It is also worth emphasizing that no postoperative urinary retention occurred, although the limited number of cases makes it hard to confirm the significance of findings over the retention rate of tension-free vaginal tape.

Estrogen receptor in pelvic floor tissues in patients with stress urinary incontinence.
Zhu L, Lang J, Feng R, Chen J, Wong F
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2004 Sep-Oct;15(5):340-3. Epub 2004 Jun 10.

Our study is to investigate the presence of estrogen receptor (ER) and its possible etiological relationship with the development of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Thirty-one biopsy specimens from pelvic floor tissues were obtained from 31 patients categorized into three groups: pelvic organ prolapse (POP), SUI and control groups. ER in the pelvic muscles tissues was evaluated quantitatively after immunohistochemical staining to visualize the ER in the tissue. The sampling rate of levator ani (striated) muscle was 6.7% in total sample from the pelvic floor tissues, with the remaining showing connective tissues, smooth muscles and nerve fibers. ER positive staining was found in the in the nuclei of connective tissue, smooth muscles and nerve fibers. The positive rates of ER staining in tissues were 1.4%, 4.7% and 5.7%, respectively in control group versus 1.1%, 2.8% and 2.7% in SUI group and 4.1%, 9.5% and 11.6% in POP group. The positive rates of ER staining in connective tissue, smooth muscle and nerve fibers in SUI group were significantly lower than that in control and POP group (P<0.01). Our study suggests that a decrease of ER in the pelvic floor tissues might be related to the occurrence of SUI and implies that hormone replacement therapy might not be effective in treatment for SUI.

The open bladder neck: a significant finding?
Digesu GA, Khullar V, Cardozo L, Salvatore S
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2004 Sep-Oct;15(5):336-9. Epub 2004 Jun 05.

Women with lower urinary tract symptoms were retrospectively studied. They were all investigated using a urinary symptoms questionnaire, a frequency-volume chart and videocystourethrography. An open bladder neck was recorded at maximum cystometric capacity with the patient standing in the left lateral position, if contrast medium entered the proximal urethra at rest in the absence of a detrusor contraction or an increase in intra-abdominal pressure. Women with neurological disorders were excluded. Of 4500 women, 2,593 (57.6%) had a single urodynamics diagnosis and were included in the study: 1207 (46.5%) had urodynamics diagnosis of urodynamic stress incontinence, 558 (21.5%) had detrusor overactivity, 118 (4.6%) had sensory urgency, and 710 (27.4%) had a normal urodynamic study. Out of the 2,593 women included, 776 women (29.9%) had an open bladder neck at rest while 1817 (70.1%) had a closed bladder neck at rest. Only 45% (542/1207) of women with urodynamic stress incontinence had an open bladder neck at rest. Seventy percent (542/776) of women with an open bladder neck had a diagnosis of urodynamic stress incontinence whilst 73% of women with detrusor overactivity and 93% of those with sensory urgency had a closed bladder neck. An open bladder neck at rest is not diagnostic of urethral sphincter incompetence but is associated with urodynamic stress incontinence. It is not associated with urgency as few women with sensory urgency and detrusor overactivity were found to have an open bladder neck. Imaging the bladder neck at rest has questionable value.

Is the cough-stress test necessary when placing the tension-free vaginal tape?
Murphy M, Culligan PJ, Arce CM, Graham CA, Blackwell L, Heit MH
Obstet Gynecol 2005 Feb;105(2):319-24.

OBJECTIVE: To estimate whether the mode of anesthesia (and the resultant ability or inability to perform the cough-stress test) used during the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure affects postoperative continence. METHODS: A cohort of 170 women who underwent the TVT procedure without any other concomitant surgery completed the short form of the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6) to assess their continence status preoperatively and postoperatively. Chi-squared, t, and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to determine the association between these data and anesthesia type during univariate analysis. RESULTS: Both anesthesia groups showed significant improvement from their preoperative UDI-6 scores to their postoperative scores. However, when comparing the change from pre- to postoperative UDI-Stress Symptoms subscale scores between the 2 groups, we found a significant difference. Mean improvement in the local group was 58.3 (+/- 33.8) compared with 41.7 (+/- 39.4) in the general group (P = .02). CONCLUSION: Women who undergo TVT show significant improvements in incontinence severity regardless of anesthesia type. However, greater improvements in stress incontinence, as measured by the UDI-Stress Symptoms subscale, are seen when the TVT is placed while using the cough-stress test under local analgesia. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II-2.

Tension free vaginal tape: is the intra-operative cough test necessary?
Low SJ, Smith KM, Holt EM
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2004 Sep-Oct;15(5):328-30. Epub 2004 Aug 03.

The tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure is recognised as an effective treatment for genuine stress incontinence. It was first described using local anaesthesia, with an intra-operative cough test helping to correctly position the tape. Many patients prefer general anaesthesia and often, patients with genuine stress incontinence do not leak when supine. This aim of this study was to compare the outcome in TVTs performed under general anaesthesia with those performed under spinal anaesthesia. Retrospective analysis of 105 patients, all of whom had urodynamically proven genuine stress incontinence and underwent TVT procedure, was performed: 52 under spinal anaesthesia and 53 under general anaesthesia. The primary and secondary outcome measures were the success or failure of the procedure and the complication rate, respectively. There was no significant difference in outcome or complication rate between the two groups. The type of anaesthetic used does not influence the outcome and we question the necessity of an intra-operative cough test.

Vaginal pessaries for the management of stress and mixed urinary incontinence.
Donnelly MJ, Powell-Morgan S, Olsen AL, Nygaard IE
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2004 Sep-Oct;15(5):302-7. Epub 2004 Aug 05.

The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to describe the use of incontinence pessaries in 239 women presenting to a tertiary referral center with symptoms of stress or mixed urinary incontinence. The mean age of the group was 57.4 years and mean body mass index 31.1 kg/m(2). We offered pessaries to 190 of 239 women, of whom 119 (62.6%) chose to undergo fitting. Most women (89.1%) achieved a successful fit. Of 106 women who took a pessary home to manage their incontinence, we were unable to contact six for follow-up. Fifty-five women used the pessary for at least 6 months (median duration 13.0 months, range 6-30), but 45 discontinued use before 6 months (median duration 1.0, range 0.03-4). Women with pulmonary disease and those who used diuretic medications were more likely to use pessaries for longer than 6 months, but no other differences between these groups were found. Pessaries appear to be an acceptable treatment option for stress and mixed urinary incontinence in that most women are willing to consider the option, and half of those successfully fitted continue use for at least 6 months.

Urethral erosion of tension-free vaginal tape presenting as recurrent stress urinary incontinence.
Wai CY, Atnip SD, Williams KN, Schaffer JI
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2004 Sep-Oct;15(5):353-5. Epub 2004 May 14.

The suburethral sling with tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) has become a popular treatment for stress urinary incontinence. Erosion of the mesh into the urethra is rare, usually presenting with hematuria, pain, voiding dysfunction or urge incontinence. A patient with stress incontinence was treated with a TVT suburethral sling. One month later, symptoms of recurrent stress incontinence developed. Cystourethroscopy revealed urethral mesh erosion. Surgical removal involved cystourethroscopic-assisted transurethral resection of the mesh, followed by vaginal dissection and periurethral withdrawal. Urethral mesh erosion should be considered in a patient who presents with atypical symptoms after being treated with a suburethral sling. It is important to obtain a detailed history and have a high clinical index of suspicion for erosion. Careful and comprehensive urethroscopy, in addition to cystoscopy, should be a mandatory part of the TVT procedure. Further study is needed to determine the optimal technique for mesh removal.

Laparoscopic colposuspension versus urethropexy: a case-control series.
Dietz HP, Wilson PD
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2005 Jan-Feb;16(1):15-8. Epub 2004 Jun 30.

Laparoscopic colposuspension (LC) was first described in the early 1990s as a technique distinct from open Burch colposuspension. Subsequently, however, LC was closely modelled along the lines of the Burch technique, and the distinct features of the original urethropexy (UP) were largely disregarded. In this case-control series the authors aimed to compare symptoms and anatomical outcomes after standard LC and urethropexy +/- paravaginal repair. The design was a clinical retrospective case-control trial. The setting was the urogynaecology and endogynaecology services of tertiary hospitals. Fifty patients after LC and 50 women after UP surgery, matched for age, body mass index, previous surgery, pre-existing urge incontinence and length of follow-up (1.01 year, range 0.02-3.54 years) for LC and 0.98 years (range 0.06-3.55 years) for UP). Intervention consisted of standardised interview and translabial ultrasound imaging. There were no significant differences for subjective cure of stress incontinence (80% for UP vs. 74% for LC), postoperative urge incontinence, frequency and nocturia. Significantly more UP patients complained of voiding dysfunction (p=0.01). Significant differences were found for urethral rotation, position of the bladder neck on Valsalva and bladder neck descent on Valsalva (all p<0.001). Both procedures were shown to be effective in curing stress incontinence. The incidence of bladder symptoms was comparable, with the exception of voiding difficulty. Significant differences were observed regarding anatomical appearances, with urethropexies showing more recurrent bladder neck hypermobility and cystocele.

Management of polypropylene mesh erosion after intravaginal midurethral sling operation for female stress urinary incontinence.
Huang KH, Kung FT, Liang HM, Chang SY
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2005 Jan 15;.

The intravaginal midurethral sling operations have become a trend to treat female stress urinary incontinence. Cases of complications requiring surgical revision are rarely reported. We report on seven patients with complications necessitating surgery. Six patients with vaginal erosion were treated with transvaginal excision of migrated tape and fibrotic tissues around the vaginal wall, and one patient with bladder erosion was treated with suprapubic minimal laparotomy and transvaginal partial excision of the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT). The incidence of polypropylene mesh erosion was 1.1% in this study. All patients recovered well from our surgical intervention, except the bladder erosion patient who needed anticholinergic medication to treat postoperative urgency and urge incontinence.

Paula method of circular muscle exercises for urinary stress incontinence-a clinical trial.
Liebergall-Wischnitzer M, Hochner-Celnikier D, Lavy Y, Manor O, Arbel R, Paltiel O
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2005 Jan 20;.

The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of the Paula method of circular muscle training in the management of stress incontinence (SI). The theory behind this method states that activity of distant sphincters affects other muscles. In a pilot study, 59 women, mainly hospital employees, were randomly assigned to participate in exercises according to the Paula method or pelvic floor training. Efficacy was measured by reports of incontinence, quality of life (I-QOL), pad test, and pelvic floor muscle strength (assessed by perineometer and digital examination). Both the Paula exercises and pelvic floor training produced significant changes in urinary leakage compared to baseline as measured by the pad test [mean decrease of 5.4 g (p=0.002) and 9.5 g (p=0.003), respectively]. Women randomized to the Paula method reported improvement in I-QOL scores. The Paula method was found to be efficacious for SI in a population of Israeli women. Larger community-based studies will be required to confirm these results and enable evaluation of between-group differences.

Impact of duloxetine on quality of life for women with symptoms of urinary incontinence.
Kinchen KS, Obenchain R, Swindle R
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2005 Jan 21;.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of duloxetine in improving quality of life among women with stress and mixed urinary incontinence. The study included 451 women with self-reported stress incontinence episodes (>/=1/week) who were randomized to duloxetine (40 mg BID) or placebo in a double-blind, usual care design. Patients and physicians were allowed to titrate, augment, and/or discontinue treatment. Concomitant treatments were permitted. The primary outcome was the Incontinence Quality of Life Questionnaire (I-QOL) score, with assessments at 3, 6, and 9 months. Other measures included the Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I) and adverse events. The adjusted mean change in I-QOL total score was greater in the duloxetine group than in the placebo group and at a level comparable to that found in previous clinical trials, but the difference between placebo and duloxetine was not statistically significant in the intent-to-treat, last observation carried forward (LOCF) analysis. The difference approached statistical significance in favor of duloxetine at 3 months (p=0.07). PGI-I ratings did not demonstrate significant superiority for duloxetine in LOCF analysis; however, study completers taking duloxetine were significantly more likely to rate themselves as "better" (70.2%) than completers taking placebo (50.8%, p<0.05). Women utilized a variety of treatment methods including pelvic floor muscle training, estrogen, anticholinergic medication, weight reduction, and smoking cessation. In this study, while mean I-QOL change scores were numerically higher for the duloxetine group than mean change scores for the placebo group, this difference was not statistically significant. Among women who completed the study on study drug, a significantly greater proportion of duloxetine women versus placebo women rated their condition to be better.

Urinary incontinence after multiple gestation and delivery: impact on quality of life.
Goldberg RP, Kwon C, Gandhi S, Atkuru LV, Sand PK
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2005 Feb 8;.

An anonymous 77-item urogenital symptom questionnaire was administered to 769 women with a history of previous multifetal gestation and delivery, including long forms of the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ) and Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI). IIQ and UDI scores were analyzed using univariate and multivariate regression to determine the impact of incontinence on quality of life (QOL). Mean age was 37 years (22-75), and nearly half [49.8% (365)] reported at least one type of incontinence. Higher mean UDI scores were reported by women with stress incontinence (SI) (12.3 vs 4.7, p=0.0001), urge incontinence (UI) (14.9 vs 5.7, p=0.0001), and mixed incontinence (15.1 vs 6.2, p=0.0001) compared to continent women. Similarly, higher mean IIQ scores were associated with SI (6.9 vs 1.9, p=0.0001), UI (9.4 vs 2.2, p=0.0001), and mixed incontinence (9.3 vs 2.7, p=0.0001). In conclusion, among "mothers of multiples," stress and urge urinary incontinence were associated with strongly adverse effects on QOL at a young age.

The Effect of Home Biofeedback Training on Stress Incontinence.
Aukee P, Immonen P, Laaksonen DE, Laippala P, Pettinen J, Airaksinen O
Obstet Gynecol Surv 2005 Feb;60(2):95-96.

This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of biofeedback in pelvic floor training for treatment of stress urinary incontinence. Thirty-five consecutive patients who had previously untreated urodynamic stress urinary incontinence were randomized to receive instruction in pelvic floor training (PFT) with adjunctive biofeedback or PFT alone.All participants underwent 12 weeks of intensive physiological training. Each visited the same physiotherapist at 0, 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. After 1 year, study subjects returned for a follow-up visit. They reported previous surgery or other treatment for stress urinary incontinence. A leakage index described by Bo, which evaluates urinary leakage involved with 13 different kinds of physical activity, was used to measure subjective outcomes at 12 weeks and 12 months.Biofeedback patients were instructed in the use of a personal, electromyography-assisted, home biofeedback device (FemiScan; MegaElectronics, Kuopio, Finland). At each visit, 3 3-second contractions with 10-second intervals were measured in the supine and standing positions. Patients kept records of training sessions with and without the device. The data from the devices were downloaded. At the end of the 12-week period, the devices were returned and patients were instructed to continue training at home.Women randomized to PFT alone received verbal and written instructions in both long- and short-duration exercises designed to strengthen both type I and type II muscle fibers. Practice sessions of 20 minutes' duration 5 days a week were recommended as well as practice during times of rest throughout the week. Patients were asked to keep a training diary and continue their exercises.There were 16 women in the home biofeedback group and 19 in the PFT alone group. Biofeedback patients had a mean 68 home training sessions (range, 10-131) recorded by the biofeedback device. In addition, they reported an average of 46 (range, 6-76) practice sessions without the device. Two patients discontinued the use of the home biofeedback device and practiced PFT alone. Women in the PFT-alone group recorded a mean of 61 training days (range, 21-87). One woman did not return her training diary.At the 1-year follow-up period, 2 participants could not be contacted and 2 could only be evaluated by telephone. Of the remaining 31 patients, 5 women in the biofeedback group (31%) and 9 in the PFT group (47%) had undergone or were awaiting incontinence surgery. The 10 women from the biofeedback group who did not undergo surgery had demonstrated a significant increase in pelvic floor muscle activity (P = 0.005 in the supine and standing positions) and decrease in leakage index (P = 0.05) during intensive the 12-week intensive biofeedback training period. This was the only group, including those with and without operation and with and without biofeedback, who had a statistically significant improvement at the end of the intensive 12-week period. None of the groups demonstrated any improvement in urinary incontinence measures from 12 weeks to 1 year.

Selecting medications for the treatment of urinary incontinence.
Weiss BD
Am Fam Physician 2005 Jan 15;71(2):315-22.

In response to the growing population of older patients with incontinence, pharmaceutical companies are developing new drugs to treat the condition. Before prescribing medications for incontinence, however, physicians should determine the nature and cause of the patient's incontinence. The evaluation should rule out reversible conditions, conditions requiring special evaluation, and overflow bladder. The best treatment for urge incontinence is behavior therapy in the form of pelvic floor muscle exercises. Medications, used as an adjunct to behavior therapy, can provide additional benefit. Many therapies are available for patients with stress incontinence, including pelvic floor muscle exercise, surgery, intravaginal support devices, pessaries, peri-urethral injections, magnetic chairs, and intraurethral inserts. No medication has been approved for the treatment of stress incontinence, although medications are under development.